Next Article in Journal
Tailoring Uptake Efficacy of HSV-1 gD Tailoring Uptake Efficacy of Hsv-1 GD Derived Carrier Peptides
Next Article in Special Issue
Metallo-β-Lactamase Inhibitors Inspired on Snapshots from the Catalytic Mechanism
Previous Article in Journal
Genome-Wide Open Chromatin Methylome Profiles in Colorectal Cancer
Previous Article in Special Issue
Structures of FOX-4 Cephamycinase in Complex with Transition-State Analog Inhibitors

Carbapenemases: Transforming Acinetobacter baumannii into a Yet More Dangerous Menace

Center for Applied Biotechnology Studies, Department of Biological Science, California State University Fullerton, Fullerton, CA 92831, USA
Medical Service and GRECC, Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
Departments of Medicine, Pharmacology, Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Biochemistry, Proteomics and Bioinformatics; Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
WRU-Cleveland VAMC Center for Antimicrobial Resistance and Epidemiology (Case VA CARES), Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2020, 10(5), 720;
Received: 22 April 2020 / Revised: 27 April 2020 / Accepted: 29 April 2020 / Published: 6 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beta-Lactamases: Sequence, Structure, Function, and Inhibition)
Acinetobacter baumannii is a common cause of serious nosocomial infections. Although community-acquired infections are observed, the vast majority occur in people with preexisting comorbidities. A. baumannii emerged as a problematic pathogen in the 1980s when an increase in virulence, difficulty in treatment due to drug resistance, and opportunities for infection turned it into one of the most important threats to human health. Some of the clinical manifestations of A. baumannii nosocomial infection are pneumonia; bloodstream infections; lower respiratory tract, urinary tract, and wound infections; burn infections; skin and soft tissue infections (including necrotizing fasciitis); meningitis; osteomyelitis; and endocarditis. A. baumannii has an extraordinary genetic plasticity that results in a high capacity to acquire antimicrobial resistance traits. In particular, acquisition of resistance to carbapenems, which are among the antimicrobials of last resort for treatment of multidrug infections, is increasing among A. baumannii strains compounding the problem of nosocomial infections caused by this pathogen. It is not uncommon to find multidrug-resistant (MDR, resistance to at least three classes of antimicrobials), extensively drug-resistant (XDR, MDR plus resistance to carbapenems), and pan-drug-resistant (PDR, XDR plus resistance to polymyxins) nosocomial isolates that are hard to treat with the currently available drugs. In this article we review the acquired resistance to carbapenems by A. baumannii. We describe the enzymes within the OXA, NDM, VIM, IMP, and KPC groups of carbapenemases and the coding genes found in A. baumannii clinical isolates.
View Full-Text
Keywords: β-lactam; β-lactamase; antibiotic resistance; plasmid; ESKAPE; Acinetobacter β-lactam; β-lactamase; antibiotic resistance; plasmid; ESKAPE; Acinetobacter
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ramirez, M.S.; Bonomo, R.A.; Tolmasky, M.E. Carbapenemases: Transforming Acinetobacter baumannii into a Yet More Dangerous Menace. Biomolecules 2020, 10, 720.

AMA Style

Ramirez MS, Bonomo RA, Tolmasky ME. Carbapenemases: Transforming Acinetobacter baumannii into a Yet More Dangerous Menace. Biomolecules. 2020; 10(5):720.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ramirez, Maria S., Robert A. Bonomo, and Marcelo E. Tolmasky 2020. "Carbapenemases: Transforming Acinetobacter baumannii into a Yet More Dangerous Menace" Biomolecules 10, no. 5: 720.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop