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Different Effects of Nicotine and N-Stearoyl-ethanolamine on Episodic Memory and Brain Mitochondria of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Knockout Mice

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, 01030 Kyiv, Ukraine
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Biomolecules 2020, 10(2), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10020226
Received: 16 December 2019 / Revised: 8 January 2020 / Accepted: 29 January 2020 / Published: 3 February 2020
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of α7 subtype (α7 nAChRs) are involved in regulating neuroinflammation and cognitive functions. Correspondingly, α7-/- mice demonstrate pro-inflammatory phenotype and impaired episodic memory. In addition, nAChRs expressed in mitochondria regulate the release of pro-apoptotic factors like cytochrome c. Here we studied whether the cognitive deficiency of α7-/- mice can be cured by oral consumption of either nicotine or N-stearoylethanolamine (NSE), a lipid possessing anti-inflammatory, cannabimimetic and membrane-stabilizing activity. Mice were examined in Novel Object Recognition behavioral test, their blood, brains and brain mitochondria were tested for the levels of interleukin-6, various nAChR subtypes and cytochrome c released by ELISA. The data presented demonstrate that both substances stimulated the raise of interleukin-6 in the blood and improved episodic memory of α7-/- mice. However, NSE improved, while nicotine worsened the brain mitochondria sustainability to apoptogenic stimuli, as shown by either decreased or increased amounts of cytochrome c released. Both nicotine and NSE up-regulated α4β2 nAChRs in the brain; NSE up-regulated, while nicotine down-regulated α9-containing nAChRs in the brain mitochondria. It is concluded that the level of alternative nAChR subtypes in the brain is critically important for memory and mitochondria sustainability in the absence of α7 nAChRs.
Keywords: nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; nicotine; N-stearoylethanolamine; α7 knockout mice; memory; mitochondria nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; nicotine; N-stearoylethanolamine; α7 knockout mice; memory; mitochondria
MDPI and ACS Style

Lykhmus, O.; Kalashnyk, O.; Uspenska, K.; Horid’ko, T.; Kosyakova, H.; Komisarenko, S.; Skok, M. Different Effects of Nicotine and N-Stearoyl-ethanolamine on Episodic Memory and Brain Mitochondria of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Knockout Mice. Biomolecules 2020, 10, 226.

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