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Vascular Epiphytic Medicinal Plants as Sources of Therapeutic Agents: Their Ethnopharmacological Uses, Chemical Composition, and Biological Activities

Drug Utilisation and Discovery Research Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Jember, Jember, Jawa Timur 68121, Indonesia
Centre for Biodiscovery and Molecular Development of Therapeutics, Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Cairns, QLD 4878, Australia
School of Chemistry and Molecular Bioscience and Molecular Horizons, University of Wollongong, and Illawarra Health & Medical Research Institute, Wollongong, NSW 2522 Australia
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2020, 10(2), 181;
Submission received: 17 December 2019 / Revised: 17 January 2020 / Accepted: 21 January 2020 / Published: 24 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Pharmacology of Medicinal Plants)


This is an extensive review on epiphytic plants that have been used traditionally as medicines. It provides information on 185 epiphytes and their traditional medicinal uses, regions where Indigenous people use the plants, parts of the plants used as medicines and their preparation, and their reported phytochemical properties and pharmacological properties aligned with their traditional uses. These epiphytic medicinal plants are able to produce a range of secondary metabolites, including alkaloids, and a total of 842 phytochemicals have been identified to date. As many as 71 epiphytic medicinal plants were studied for their biological activities, showing promising pharmacological activities, including as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer agents. There are several species that were not investigated for their activities and are worthy of exploration. These epipythes have the potential to furnish drug lead compounds, especially for treating cancers, and thus warrant indepth investigations.

1. Introduction

Epiphytes are plants that grow on other plants and are often known as air plants. They are mostly found in moist tropical areas on canopy tree-tops, where they exploit the nutrients available from leaf and other organic debris. These plants exist within the plantae and fungi kingdom. The term epiphyte itself was first introduced in 1815 by Charles-François Brisseau de Mirbel in “Eléments de physiologie végétale et de botanique” [1]. Epiphytes can be categorized into vascular and non-vascular epiphytic plants; the latter includes the marchantiophyta (liverworts), anthocerotophyta (hornworts), and bryophyta (mosses). The common epiphytes are mosses, ferns, liverworts, lichens, and the orchids. Epiphytes fall under two major categories: As holo- and hemi-epiphytes. While orchids are a good example of holo-epiphytes, the strangler fig is a hemi-epiphyte. Although geological studies have proposed the existence of epiphytes since the pleistone epoch, an epiphyte was first depicted in “the Badianus Manuscript” by Martinus de la Cruz in 1552, which showed the Vanilla fragrans, a hemi-epiphytic orchid, being used by the tribal communities in latin America for fragrance and aroma, usually hung around their neck [1].
Epiphytes have been a source of food and medicine for thousands of years. Since they grow in a unique ecological environment, they produce interesting secondary metabolites that often show exciting biological activities. There are notable reviews on non-vascular epiphytes, bryophyta, regarding their phytochemical and pharmacological activities [2,3,4,5]. There are also extensive reviews on epiphytic lichens covering secondary metabolites and their pharmacological activities [6,7,8,9]. The only available review on vascular epiphytes related to medicinal uses was focused on Orchidaceae [10]. Therefore, to the best of our knowledge, there is no extensive database of vascular epiphytes regarding their medicinal contribution.
There are 27,614 recorded species of vascular epiphytes belonging to 73 families and 913 genera [11]. Vascular epiphyte species are commonly found in pteridophyta, gymnosperms, and angiosperms plant groups, which are mostly found in the moist tropical areas on canopy tree tops, where they exploits the nutrients available from leaf and other organic debris [12,13]. In this study, information on vascular epiphytic medicinal plant species was collected using search engines (Web of Science, Scifinder Scholar, prosea, prota, Google scholar), medicinal plant books (Plant Resources of South-East Asia: Medicinal and Poisonous Plants [14,15,16], Plant Resources of South-East Asia: Cryptogams: Ferns and Fern Allies [17], Mangrove Guide for South-East Asia [18], Medicinal Plants of the Asia-Pacific [19], Medicinal Plants of the Guiana [20], Indian Medicinal Plants [21,22], Medicinal Plants of Bhutan [23], Medicinal and aromatic plants of Indian Ocean islands: Madagascar, Comoros, Seychelles and Mascarenes [24]), and the Indonesian Medicinal Plants Database [25]. Scientific names of the epiphytic medicinal plant species were compared against the Plantlist database for accepted names to avoid redundancy [26]. The time-frame threshold for data coverage was from the earliest available data until early 2020. Nevertheless, empirical knowledge regarding traditional medicinal plants was passed through generations using verbal or written communication, with verbal communication highly practiced by remote tribes [27,28]. It is possible that some oral traditional medical knowledge may not be reported and therefore not captured in this review. In this current study, we collected and reviewed 185 epiphytic medicinal plants reported in the literature, covering ethnomedicinal uses of epiphytes, their phytochemical studies and the pharmacological activities. The data collection approach used is presented in Figure 1.

2. Ethnopharmacological Information of Vascular Epiphytic Medicinal Plants

2.1. Vascular Epiphytic Medicinal Plant Species Distribution within Plant Families

In this component of the study, we collated and analysed 185 of the medicinally used epiphytic plants species using ethnopharmacological information. This data (Table 1) includes the name of species, plant family, areas where the epiphytes are used in traditional medicines, part(s) of the plant being used in medication, how the medicine was prepared, and indications. Of the 185 medicinally used epiphytes, 53 species were ferns (mostly polipodiaceae), with 132 species belonging to the non-fern category. The Orchidaceae family contains the Dendrobium genus that contains the highest number of medicinal epiphytes, including 64 orchid species and 20 Dendrobium species. The Orchidaceae epiphytes were the majority of non-fern epiphytes. Cassytha filiformis L, Bulbophyllum odoratissimum (Sm.) Lindl. ex Wall., Cymbidium goeringii Rchb.f.) Rchb.f., Acrostichum aureum Limme, and Ficus natalensis Hochst. were the five most popular vascular epiphytic medicinal pants used (Figure 2).

2.2. Distribution of Vascular Epiphytic Medicinal Plant Species by Country

Based on the available records, the data curation and analysis revealed that the Indigenous Indonesians have used 58 diverse epiphytic medicinal plant species throughout the archipelago and have the highest record compared to other tropical countries (Figure 3). China is second and is well known for its traditional medicine, including the use of epiphytes in medicament preparation. This is followed by the Indigenous Indians, with the well-established Ayurveda as a formal record of Indian medicinal plants. The traditional medicinal plant knowledge of Indonesa has been heavily influenced by Indian culture and enriched by Chinese and Arabian traders since the kingdom era [27].

2.3. Parts of Vascular Epiphytic Medicinal Plant Species Used in Traditional Medicines

This review determined that leaves were the main plant components used in the traditional medicines (Figure 4). This was expected given they are more easily harvested (without excessive tools) and processed compared to other plant parts, e.g., the root and stem. As some epiphytes have a small biomass compared to higher trees, the whole plant is commonly harvested in medicament preparation. Interestingly, almost half of epiphytic medicinal plants were ferns, in which the stem-like stipe is prepared for medicine. Without haustoria (a specialised absorbing structure of a parasitic plant), the root and rhizome of epiphytic medicinal plants are easily harvested and prepared.

2.4. Modes of Preparation and Dosage of Administration of Vascular Epiphytic Medicinal Plant Species in Traditional Medicines

Generally, medicinally active secondary metabolites have a water solubility problem likely related to the lipophilic moieties in their structures [29]. Using boiling water, decoctions are able to increase the yield of secondary metabolites extracted from medicinal plants. Therefore, it is not surprising that decoctions are commonly used in traditional medicine preparations from plants (Figure 5). External applications are also commonly practiced in traditional medicinal therapies, including poultice (moist mass of material), raw, or less processed medicine. Poultices were commonly prepared for skin diseases while a decoction was ingested for internal infectious diseases (i.e., fever).

2.5. Category of Diseases Treated by Vascular Epiphytic Medicinal Plant Species

Interestingly, epiphytes have been used for treating various ailments, including both infectious and non-infectious diseases. Traditional communities described infectious diseases related to skin diseases (wounds, boils, ulcers, abscesses, smallpox) and non-skin diseases (fever, diarrhoea, ulcers, colds, worm infections, and malaria). A total of 54 epiphytic medicinal plant species were prescribed to treat skin diseases while 81 species to treat non-skin infectious diseases (Figure 6).
Hygiene has been a serious issue in traditional communities as it gives rise to infectious diseases. Fever is a common symptom of pathogenic infection and has been treated using medicinal plants, including epiphytes. Hygiene issues are also a common cause of skin disease, wounds, dysentery, and diarrhoea in traditional communities.

3. Phytochemical Composition of Vascular Epiphytic Medicinal Plants

Epiphytes belong to a distinctive plant class as they do not survive in soil and this influences the secondary metabolites present. Epiphytes are physically removed from the terrestrial soil nutrient pool and grow upon other plants in canopy habitats, shaping epiphyte morphologies by the method in which they acquire nutrients [30]. Nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, are obtained from different sources, including canopy debris (through fall) and host tree foliar leaching [30], the latter influencing canopy soil nutrient cycling [31,32]. In the conversion of sunlight into chemical energy, the epiphyte often uses a specific carbon fixation pathway (CAM: Crassulacean acid metabolism) as a result of harsh environmental conditions [33], making them unique and thus worthwhile for scientific studies.
In the early 20th century, laboratory-based research on epiphytes studied the plant’s production of alkaloids, cyanogenetic, and organic sulfur compounds, with the plants producing limited quantities of these compounds [34]. Common plant steroids, e.g., β-sitosterol, have been shown to be present in 22 different epiphytic medicinal plants (Figure 7). This is possibly due to the function of the steroids as structural cell wall components, giving rise to a wide distribution across plant families and species. A further example of a common plant steroid present is stigmasterol.
Table 2 lists the secondary metabolites identified in epiphytic medicinal plants and details the species, isolated compounds, and provides references. Currently, only 69 species have been phytochemically studied (23 fern and 46 non-fern epiphytes) and 842 molecules have been isolated from these epiphytic plants. Analysis of the literature showed epiphytes were able to produce a range of secondary metabolites, including terpenes and flavonoids, with no alkaloids being isolated from epiphytic fern medicinal plants thus far. β-Sitosterol, a common phytosterol in higher plants, was reported across fern genera. Interestingly, there is one unique terpene produced, hopane, which is commonly called fern sterol. Common flavonoids, such as kaempferol, quercetin, and flavan-3-ol derivatives (catechin), were also reported across the epiphytic ferns. Epiphytic pteridaceae, Acrostichum aureum Limme, is rich in quercetin [35]. Further analysis showed there were more secondary metabolites reported from non-fern epiphytic medicinal plants than from fern epiphytic medicinal plants, including terpene derivatives, flavonoids, and alkaloids. Included were flavanone, flavone, and flavonol derivatives but no flavan-3-ols were reported in these epiphytes so far. In the non-fern epiphytes, there were more phytochemical studies on orchid genera with additional classes of compounds reported, including penantrene derivatives (flavanthrinin, nudol, fimbriol B) [36,37] from the Bulbophyllum genus and the alkaloid dendrobine from the Dendrobium genus [38].
Therefore, while epiphytes may have limitations in accessing nutrients, adaptation has enabled them to successfully survive these environments. Studies on numerous medicinal epiphytes show that the unique environment does not constrain the plants from producing different types of secondary metabolites. These include terpenes, flavonoids, and alkaloids, especially the non-fern epiphytic medicinal plants.

4. Pharmacological Activities of Vascular Epiphytic Medicinal Plants

The pharmacological activities of medicinal epiphytes are summarised in Table 1, including the plant species, ethnopharmacological indication, and pharmacological test results. The ethnopharmacological uses of each plant are also present for a correlation and comparison with the pharmacological activities. There are a large number of phytochemical studies on the four fern-epiphytes (Stenochlaena palustris (Burm. F.) Bedd., Botrychum lanuginosum Wall.ex Hook & Grev., Pyrrosia petiolosa (Christ) Ching, Psilotum nudum (L.) P. Beauv) without any biological activity testing reported. This occurred to four non-fern epiphytes (Bulbophyllum vaginatum (Lindl.) Rchb.f, Mycaranthes pannea (Lindl.) S.C.Chen & J.J.Wood, Pholidota articulata Lindl., Viscum ovalifolium DC) and non-fern epiphytic medicinal plants. This lack of pharmacological testing limits scientific support for the traditional uses of these plants.
From the 191 collected records of epiphytic medicinal plants, around 71 species were subjected to bioactivity testing, with 25 of these species using crude extract samples. Although this testing represents almost 50% of the species examined, only a few of the pharmacological tests were related to ethnopharmacological claims. Here, we discuss selected species where the outcomes indicated a coherent relationship between bioactivities and traditional claims.

4.1. Infectious Disease Therapy

Research on epiphytes that have been used in infectious disease therapy include in wound healing, dysentery, and skin infections. A study on the methanol extract of Adiantum caudatum L., Mant showed anti-fungal activity against common fungi found in wounds (Aspergilus and Candida species) [39], including Aspergillus flavus, A. spinulosus, A. nidulans, and Candida albicans, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 15.6, 15.6, 31.2, and 3.9 µg/mL, respectively. Gallic acid was one of the bioactive constituents [40]. The methanol extract of Ficus natalensis Hochst (a semi-epiphytic plant) showed anti-malarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum, with an half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 41.7 µg/mL, and weak bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus, with an MIC value of 99 µg/mL [41]. These results became preliminary data for confirming its traditional uses as malarial fever therapy and wound healing. Phytochemical studies on Pyrrosia sheareri (Bak.) Ching successfully isolated several compounds and were subjected to anti-oxidant testing. While this was not in line with the plant’s ethnomedical uses for dysentery therapy [42], one of the isolated constituents was protocateuchic acid, which is known to possess anti-bacterial activity. It implies that the traditional uses of the epiphyte was for bacillary dysentery therapy.

4.2. Non-Infectious/Degenerative Disease-Related Therapy

An exploration on Drynaria species, highly prescribed in bone fracture therapy, successfully isolated flavonoid constituents that induce osteoblast proliferation [43]. Previous studies on Acrostichum aureum Limme failed to show its anti-bacterial activities [44] contrary to its traditional claims in wound management. However, patriscabratine 257 was isolated from the defatted methanol extract of whole plant of A. aureum, and subsequent testing showed it possessed anti-cancer activity in gastric cells and this supprted the traditional use of the plant in peptic ulcer therapy [35]. A decoction from the epiphyte Ficus deltoida has been used to treat diabetes. A study on the hot aqueous extract of this plant revealed anti-hyperglycemic activity by stimulating insulin secretion up to seven-fold. Furthermore, its activity mechanism was related to both the K+ATP-dependant and -non-dependant insulin secretion pathway [45]. However, further studies are required to identify the constituents responsible for the anti-hyperglycaemic activity.
The Indigenous people of Paraguay have used Catasetum barbatum Lindley to topically treat inflammation. Four bioactive compounds were isolated from this species and 2,7-dihydroxy-3,4,8-trimethoxyphenanthrene (confusarin) 595 showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity [46]. The study also revealed the compound to be a non-competitive inhibitor of the H1-receptor.
From the polypodiaceae family, the rhizome of Phymatodes scolopendria (burm.) Ching has been used to treat respiratory disorders. A bioassay-guided phytochemical study on Phymatodes scolopendria (Burm. f.) Pic. Serm. isolated 1,2-benzopyrone (coumarin) 209 as a bronchodilator [47].

5. Epiphytic Plant–Host Interactions on Secondary Metabolite Tapping

Secondary metabolite tapping has been an interesting study to reveal the molecular interactions between epiphytes and their host. This interaction was more visible when a physical channel between the two were developed. This channel (haustorium) made an epiphytic plant act as a parasite that enabled the plant to harvest molecular components from the host plant. A study on Scurulla oortiana (Korth.) Danser growth in three different host species (Citrus maxima, Persea Americana, and Camellia sinensis) identified three secondary metabolites (quercitrin, isoquercitrin, and rutin) in the S. oortiana (Korth.) Danser epiphyte growing on the three hosts [48]. Interestingly, extensive chromatographic and spectroscopic studies discovered that the flavonoids found in the S. oortiana (Korth.) Danser were independent of the host plants [48]. Secondary metabolite production in a host plant can also be triggered by the existence of a parasite, as discussed in a study on Tapirira guianensis infested by Phoradendron perrottetii, in which infested branches produced more tannin compare to non-infested branches, with infestation inducing a systemic response [48].

6. Conclusions

Epiphytes are the most beautiful vascular plants and contain interesting phytochemicals and possess exciting pharmacological activities. An analysis of the literature revealed 185 epiphytes that are used in traditional medicine, in which phytochemical studies identified a total of 842 secondary metabolites. Only 71 epiphytic medicinal plants were studied for their pharmacological activities and showed promising pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer. Several species were not investigated for their activities and are worthy of exploration, including epiphytes from the Araceae (P. fragantissimum), Aralliaceae (S. caudata, S. elliptica, S. elliptifoliola, S. oxyphylla, S. simulans), and Asclepidaceae (Asclopidae sp., D. acuminate, D. benghalensis, D. imbricate, D. major, D. nummularia, D. platyphylla, D. purpurea, Toxocarpus sp) families, in which no phytochemical and pharmacological studies had been reported. These species have been used by Indigenous populations to treat both degenerative and nondegenerative diseases. It is known that there are examples of Indigenous populations living in protected forest reserves (e.g., in Indonesia) where epiphytes are used in their medicine, e.g., some species of Dischidia are used to treat fever, eczema, herpes etc.; these plants have not yet been studied. Therefore, the possibility of responsible bioprospecting exists (in compliance with the Nagoya protocol), which would be invaluable in biodiscovery knowledge as well as in mutual benefit sharing agreements.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, A.S.N., P.W., P.A.K.; data curation and analysis, A.S.N.; making and editing of the figures, A.S.N.; writing—original draft preparation, A.S.N., P.W., P.A.K.; writing—review and editing, A.S.N., B.T., P.W., P.A.K. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research received no external funding.


ASN thanks to University of Jember and University of Wollongong for research support. Authors thank to Frank Zich (Australian Tropical Herbarium & National Research Collections Australia) for providing taxonomy consultation.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Figure 1. Schematic data collection approach.
Figure 1. Schematic data collection approach.
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Figure 2. Five most popular medicinal epiphytes. (A) C. filiformis L. (B) B. odoratissimum (Sm.) Lindl. ex Wall. (C) C. goeringii (Rchb.f.) Rchb.f. (D) A. aureum Limme. (E) F. natalensis Hochst.
Figure 2. Five most popular medicinal epiphytes. (A) C. filiformis L. (B) B. odoratissimum (Sm.) Lindl. ex Wall. (C) C. goeringii (Rchb.f.) Rchb.f. (D) A. aureum Limme. (E) F. natalensis Hochst.
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Figure 3. Density map showing a number of epiphytic medicinal plant species used by different countries. The number of species used is proportional to colour intensity.
Figure 3. Density map showing a number of epiphytic medicinal plant species used by different countries. The number of species used is proportional to colour intensity.
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Figure 4. Components of epiphytic plants used in medicinal preparations (represented in percentages). LF: leaf; WP: whole; RT: root; ST: stem, RZ: rhizome; FT: fruit; PdB: pseudobulbs; BK: bark; LT: latex; TB: tuber; PT: pith; SD: seed; SP: spore; BD: buds; BL: bulbs: NT: nutmeg; PD: pedi; PdTB: pseudotuber; STh: sheath.
Figure 4. Components of epiphytic plants used in medicinal preparations (represented in percentages). LF: leaf; WP: whole; RT: root; ST: stem, RZ: rhizome; FT: fruit; PdB: pseudobulbs; BK: bark; LT: latex; TB: tuber; PT: pith; SD: seed; SP: spore; BD: buds; BL: bulbs: NT: nutmeg; PD: pedi; PdTB: pseudotuber; STh: sheath.
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Figure 5. Modes of preparation and administration of epiphytic medicinal plants (represented in percentages).
Figure 5. Modes of preparation and administration of epiphytic medicinal plants (represented in percentages).
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Figure 6. Number of epiphytic medicinal plant species used traditionally to treat infectious diseases.
Figure 6. Number of epiphytic medicinal plant species used traditionally to treat infectious diseases.
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Figure 7. Number of epiphytic medicinal plant species producing the same secondary metabolites.
Figure 7. Number of epiphytic medicinal plant species producing the same secondary metabolites.
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Table 1. Ethnopharmacological database of epiphytic medicinal plants.
Table 1. Ethnopharmacological database of epiphytic medicinal plants.
NoEpiphyte SpeciesLocationPart of PlantsPreparation and Route of AdministrationIndication (traditional)Pharmacological Testing (modern)
Fern species
1Adiantum caudatum L.India, Indonesia, MalaysiaLFDecoctionCough, heal wound, cold, tumors of spleen, liver and other viscera, skin diseases, bronchitis, and inflammatory diseases [40,49,50]Antimicrobial (MeOH extract, gram +, -, fungi) [40]
2Asplenium nidus L.Tahiti, Malaysia, Philippines, Vanuatu, IndonesiaLF, WPOintment, decoction, eatenHeadache, hair loss (pounded leaves mixed with coconut oil), ease labor, fever (decoction), contraceptive, depurative, sedative agents. edible food (young leaves), ornament, anti-inflammation, promote blood circulation [51,52,53]Antioxidative (MeOH extract, DPPH), tyrosinase inhibiting (MeOH extract, microtitre), antibacterial (MeOH extract) [44]
3Asplenium macrophyllum Sw.IndiaLFDecoctionAs laxative, emetic, diuretic, anthelmintic agent, to treat ophthalmia, jaundice, spleen diseases [52,54]
4Asplenium polydon G. Foster var bipinnatum (Sledge)IndiaLFDecoction, pastePromote labor, tumor [55]
5Asplenium serratum L.Columbia, PerunaNot mentionedLiver problem, stomachache, ovary inflammation [52,56]
6Stenochlaena palustris (Burm. F.) Bedd.Indonesia, IndiaLF, RZEaten, decoction, poulticeYoung reddish leaves are used as food, leaves are used to treat fever, skin diseases, throat, and gastric ulcer, as antibacterial, rhizome and leaves are used to treat burns and ulcers, as cooling agent [18,57]
7Davallia denticulata (Burm. f.) Mett. ex KuhnMalaysia, IndonesiaRTDecoctionGout, pain, as tonic [49,58]
8Araiostegia divaricata (Blume) M. KatoChina, TaiwanWPNot mentionedJoint pain [59]Anti-psoriasis [60], antioxidant (water extract, DPPH) [61]
9Davallia parvula Wall. Ex Hook. & Grev. naNot mentionedNot mentioned [18,62]
10Davallia solida (G. Forst.) Sw.Tahiti, Fiji, other PolynesianWPDecoction (external and internal) Dysmennorrhea, luochorea, uterine hemorrhage, sore throat, asthma, constipation, fracture, fish sting, promote health pregnancy, as a bath for newborn, anti-microbial [53,63,64,65]Antioxidant (extract, ABTS) [61], antioxidant (DPPH, all isolates) [66], anti-neurotoxicity (extract, (Neuro-2a cells, ATCC CCL-131) [67], C-terminal cytosolic domain of P-pg [68], anti-skin aging [69]
11Leucostegia immersa Wall. ex C. PreslNepalRZDecoction, pasteBoils (paste), constipation (decoction), as antibacterial (paste) [70]
12Aeschynanthus radicans JackMalaysiaLFDecoctionHeadache [19]
13Cyrtandra spIndonesiaLFPoulticeSkin ailments [71]
14Hymenophyllum polyanthos Sw.SurinameWPBurnt (smoke inhaling), decoctionDizziness (insanity), pain, cramps [72]
15Hymenophyllum javanicum Spreng.IndiaWPSmoke together with garlic and onionsHeadache [55]
16Huperzia carinata (Desv. ex Poir.) TrevisSouth-East AsiaWPOintmentStimulate hair growth [73]Anti-acetylcholinesterase (74, 75, 76, colorimetric Ellman method) [74]
17Huperzia phlegmaria (L.) RothmSouth-East Asia, IndiaWPOintmentStimulate hair growth, skin diseases [75,76]Cytotoxic activities against HuCCA-1, A-549, HepG2, and MOLT-3 cancer cell lines (81, 79, 77) [77]
18Huperzia megastachya (Baker) TardieuMadagascarLFDecoction (infusion)Tonic [78]
19Huperzia obtusifolia (Sw.) Rothm.MadagascarLFDecoction (infusion)Tonic [78]
20Nephrolepis acutifolia (Desv.) ChristMalaysiaWPBoiled, eatenFood [79]
21Nephrolepis biserrata (Sw.) SchottMalaysia, Indonesia, Ivory Coast, New GuineaLF, RZ, WPDecoction, cookedLeaves are used to treat boils, blister, abscesses, sores, and cough. Rhizomes are used as edible food [80,81] Antibacterial (extract) [82]
22Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C. PreslIndiaRZDecoction (fresh leaves)Cough, rheumatism, chest congestion, nose blockage, loss appetites, infection (antibacterial), pinnae is used to treat cough, wounds, jaundice, anti-fungal, styptic, anti-tussive [57]Antibacterial, anti-fungal (extract fractions aerial part) [83]
23Oleandra musifolia (Blume) C. PreslPhilippines, IndiaSTDecoctionAnthelmintic, emmenagogue, antidote (snake bite) [70,84]
24Botrychum lanuginosum Wall.ex Hook & Grev.IndiaWPDecoction, pasteAntibacterial, anti-dysentery agents [57]
25Ophioglossum pendulum L.Indonesia, PhilippinesLFOintment, decoction.Hair treatment (crushed leaves), cough (decocotion), rid the first feces (spores), ornament [85]Cell activator, skin whitening agent and antioxidant (patent, mixed with other Ophioglossum species) [86], anti-diarrhea (stipe MeOH extract, rabit jejenum) [86]
26Pyrrosia piloselloides (L.) M.G. PriceIndonesia, Malaysia, China, Philippines, Pacific islandsLFDecoction (internal), chewed, poultice (external)Smallpox, rashes, gonorrhea, dysentery, tuberculosis, urinary tract infection, headache, cough, gum inflammation, tooth sockets, eczema, coagulate blood [87,88,89,90]Antibacterial, anti-fungal (extracts) [91]
27Drynaria rigidula (Sw.) Bedd.Indonesia, Philippines, Treasury IslandLF, RZDecoction, chewingGonorrhea, dysentery (rhizome, decoction), and seasickness (chewed) [21]n-Hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions from both rhizome and leaves of Drynaria rigidula were screened for activity against Plasmodium falciparum, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, vero cells and herpes simplex virus which all extracts showed insignificant activities [92]
28Drynaria sparsisora (Desv.) T. MooreIndonesia, Philippines, ThailandLF, RZExternal, decoctionRhizome: headache, fever, diarrhea, gonorrhea, swollen limbs, fever. Leaves: anti-vomiting, snake bite, eye infection [21,71,93]
29Drynaria roosii NakaikeChinaWPDecoctionDeficient kidney, invigorate blood, heal wound, stop bleeding [21]Compound 230 was isolated and the biotesting showed the highest stimulation toward UMR 106 cells (osteoblast) by 42.6% at a concentration of 1 µM [94]
30Drynaria propinqua (Wall. ex Mett.) BeddBhutan, India and NepalSTPillsAntidote and detoxifier especially when suffering from meat poisoning and other human-made poisons (sbyar-dug) [95]
31Drynaria quercifolia (L.) J.Sm.Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, IndiaLF, RZDecoction, poulticeSwelling, fever (poultice leaves), haemoptysis, typhoid fever, ulcers, dyspepsia, artharlgia, diarrhea (decocted rhizome), inflammation, anthelmitic, cough, fever, phthisis, poultice of rhizome mixed with Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr.) to treat headache, hepatoprotective agent [21,22,96] Compound 200 from the ethyl acetate fraction to be responsible for good antimicrobial activity [97]
32Lepisorus contortus (Christ) ChingBhutan, India, ChinaLFPowderHeals bone fracture, burns, wounds and kidney disorders [98]
33Loxogramme involuta (D. Don) C. PreslIndonesiaLF, WPSmokedSmoked with tobacco [18]
34Loxogramme scolopendria (Bory) PresleyIndonesiaLFSmokedCigarette paper [99]
35Microsorum fortunei (T. Moore) ChingIndonesiaWPDecoctionDiuretic, promote blood circulation [49,51]
36Microsorum punctatum (L.) Copel.IndiaLFJuiceDiuretic, purgative, wounds [70]
37Phlebodium aureum (L.) J.SmMexicoRZDecoctionCough, fever, sudorific agents [57]
38Phymatosorus scolopendria (Burm. f.) Pic. Serm.South-East Asia, MadagascarRZFragrance (external), poultice, decoctionFragrance, gecko bites, accelerate childbirthRespiratory disorder [18,47]Bronchodilator (341, in-vivo) [47]
39Platycerium coronarium (Mull.) Desv.IndonesiaLFPoultice (salt added)Thyroid edema, scabies [18,100]
40Platycerium bifurcatum (Cav.) C. Chr.IndonesiaLFPoultice (salt added)Thyroid edema, scabies, fever, swelling [100,101]
41Pleopeltis macrocarpa (Bory ex Willd.) Kaulf.South-Africa, Mexico, GuatemalaLF, RZDecoctionSore throat, itches, cough, febrifuge [70,102]
42Pyrrosia heterophylla (L.) M.G. PriceIndiaWPPoulticeSwelling, sprain, pain (cooling agent) [103]
43Pyrrosia lanceolata (L.) Farw.Malaysia, South-Africa, MexicoLF, WPJuice, poultice, decoctionDysentery, headache, colds, sore throats, itch guard [55,87]
44Pyrrosia lingua (Thunb.) Farw.Japan, China, Indonesia, Pacific IslandsLF, WPDecoctionDiuretic, anti-inflammation, analgesic, cough, stomachache, urinary disorder (diuretic agent) [87,104,105,106]Antioxidant [107], inhibition effects on virus-induced CPE when SARS-CoV strain BJ001 [108]
45Pyrrosia longifolia (Burm. f.) C.V. Morton Indonesia, Pacific IslandsLFPoultice (cold water)Ease pains in labor [18,87]
46Pyrrosia petiolosa (Christ) ChingChinaWPDecoctionUrinary tract infections, as diuretic [109]
47Pyrrosia sheareri (Baker) ChingChinaLFDecoctionBacillary dysentery, rheumatism [87,110]Antioxidant [110]
48Psilotum nudum (L.) P. Beauv. IndiaLF, SPFresh, decoctionDiarrhea (infants), antibacterial, purgative [55]
49Acrostichum aureum L.South-East Asia, Bangladesh, Fiji, China, PanamaLF, RZ Eaten, decoctionWounds, peptic ulcers and boils, worm infections, asthma, constipation, elephantiasis, febrifuge, chest pain, emollients [18,35] Anti-implantation (EtOH extract, albino rats) [111], Anti-tumour (hella cells, MTT assay) [112], Antioxidant (DPPH), tyrosine inhibition (96-well microtitre), antibacterial activity [44,113], anti-cancer ((gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29 and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay) [114]
50Acrostichum speciosum Willd.South-East Asia Thatch [18]
51Taenitis blechnoides (Willd.) Sw.MalaysiaLFDecoctionPostnatal protection [115]
52Selaginella tamariscina (P.Beauv.) SpringNepalWP, SPFresh (spore), decoctionVermilion powder, prolapsed rectum, cough, bleeding piles, amenorrhea, antibacterial [57,116]Anti-acne [117], thymus growth-stimulatory activity in adult mice (reversal of involution of thymus) and remarkable anti-lipid peroxidation activity [118]
53Vittaria elongata Sw.South-East Asia, AndamanLFDecoctionRheumatism [57] Cytotoxicity against two human cancer cell lines, lung carcinoma (NCI-H460) and central nervous system carcinoma (SF-268), antioxidant (DPPH) [119]
54Philodendron fragrantissimum (Hook.) G.DonGuyana, Suriname, BrazilLF, RTDecoction, external (leaves)Inflammation, aphrodisiac, demulcent, diuretic [72]
56Schefflera caudata (Vidal) Merr. & RolfePhilippinesWPDecoctionTonic for women after birth [120]
57Schefflera elliptica (Blume) Harms.South-East Asia, China, IndiaBK, LF, RTDecoction, chewed, externalBechic, vulnerary, toothache, aromatic bath, dropsy [120]. Antibacterial [121]
58Schefflera elliptifoliola Merr. PhilippinesLFDecoctionTonic for woman after birth [120]
59Schefflera oxyphylla (Miq.) R.Vig.Thailand, Malaysia, IndonesiaRTDecoctionSedative for frightened child, externally to treat fevers [120]
60Schefflera simulans CraibThailand, MalaysiaLF, RTDecoctionStomach problem, protective medicine after birth [120]
61Asclopidae sp.IndonesiaLF, RTDecoctionPromote blood circulation [71]
62Dischidia acuminata CostantinVietnamWPDecoctionBlenorrhoea, promote urination [19]
63Dischidia bengalensis Colebr.ThailandLT, RTLatex (external), decoction (tonic)Anthemintic (ringworm), tonic [122]
64Dischidia imbricata (Blume) Steud.IndonesiaLFPoulticeGonorrhea, burns and wounds [25,123]
65Dischidia major (Vahl) Merr.India, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia, BruneiLF, RT, WPDecoction, chrused (external), chewed with areca catechuPeptic ulcer, liver dysfunction (decocted leaves mixed with Hoya kerii Craib leaves and Vanilla aphylla Blume stem), fever (root), goiter (crushed leaves mixed with salt), cough (root mixed betel quid), wound and injuries, stomache [19,124,125]
66Dischidia nummularia R.Br.Thailand, Indonesia LF, LT, WPDecoction, latex (external)Wound, gonorrhea, sprue in children, cirrhosis [126]
67Dischidia platyphylla SchltrPhilippinesLFDecoctionPutrefaction [19]
68Dischidia purpurea Merr.PhilippinesLFCrushed leaves mixed with coconut oil applied as external poulticeEczema, herpes [19,127]
69Toxocarpus sp.IndonesiaLFDecoctionHeadache, fever, nervous system problem [71]
70Impatiens niamniamensis Gilg (semi epiphytic)CongoLFPoulticeWounds, sores, pain [128] Anti-hyperglicemic (Rat) [129]
71Convolvulaceace (parasite)
72Cassytha filiformis LIndia, Taiwan, China, Vietnam, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, Fiji, Africa, Central America.WP, NTDecoctionCough, dysentery, diarrhea, intestinal problems, headache, malaria fever, nephritis, edema, hepatitis, sinusitis, gonorrhea, syphilis, skin ulcer, eczema, prevent haemoptysis. Parasite skin and scalp. Induce lactation (after still birth), promote hair growth, diuretic, vermifuge, laxative agent, saliva blood removal (childbirth) [19,130,131,132]An α1-adrenoceptor antagonist (Rat thoracic aorta) [133], antiplatelet and vasorelaxing actions (Rabit platelet, aortic contraction) [134], anti-trypanosomal, citotoxicity [135], antioxidant [136]
73Cuscuta australis R.Br.Indonesia, Vietnam, ChinaWP, SDDecoction, poulticeWhole plant: emollient, sedative, sudorific and tonic agents, urinary complaint. The seeds: sedative agent, diabetes, cornea opacity, acne, dandruff [137].Cytotoxicity, antioxidant activity, and inhibitory effects on tyrosinase activity and melanin biosynthesis were estd. by using melanoma Clone M-3 [138]
74Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.IndiaWPDecoction, poulticeMixed with the twigs of Vitex negundo L. applied as fomentation on the abdomen of kwarsiokor children, fever, itchy [139,140]Anti-viral [141,142], anti-HIV [143], analgesic, relaxant (ether extract) [144], antisteroidogenic activity (MeOH extract) [141], antibacterial activity [145], hair growth activity in androgen-induced alopecia [146], anti-inflammatory (murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7), anti-cancer (Hep3B cells by MTT assay) [147], antioxidant (etOAc extract, DPPH), anti-obesity (EtOAc extract) [148]
75Clusia grandiflora Splitg. (hemi epiphyte)Guyana, SurinameRTDecoctionAphrodisiac [72]Antibacterial [149]
76Clusia fockeana Miq. (hemi epiphyte)Guyana, SurinameST(Exudate)PoulticeSnake bites, ulcers [72]
77Columnea nicaraguensis Oerst.PanamaST, LF, WPDecoction, macerationFever [150]
78Columnea sanguinolenta (Klotzsch ex Oerst.) Hanst.PanamaST, LFDecoctionDysmenorrhea [150]
79Columnea tulae Urb. var. tomentulosa (C.V. Morton) B.D. MorleyPanamaSTDecoctionFever [150]
80Drymonia serrulata (Jacq.) Mart.AmazonnaNot mentionedEczema [151]Analgesic, anti-inflammatory [152]
81Drymonia coriacea (Oerst. ex Hanst.) WiehlerAmazonnaNot mentionedToothache [151]
82Fagraea auriculata Jack. (semi epiphyte)IndonesiaST Stem for stick [25]Anti-inflammatory [153]
Loranthaceae (parasite)
83Amyema bifurcata (Benth.) Tiegh.AustraliaST, LFDecoctionColds, fever, sores [154]
84Amyema quandang (Lindl.) Tiegh.AustraliaLFDecoctionFever [155]
85Amyema maidenii (Blakely) BarlowAustraliaFTDecoctionInflammation in the genital regions [156]
86Dendrophthoe falcata (L.f.) EttingshIndiaWPDecoctionPulmonary tuberculosis, asthma, menstrual disorders, swellings, wounds, ulcers, strangury, renal and vesical calculi, aphrodisiac, astringent, narcotic, diuretic [157].Wound healing activity was studied, antimicrobial activity and antioxidant activity [158]
87Dendrophthoe frutescens L.Indonesia LF, WPDrink (decoction)Anti-inflammation, antibacterial [51]
88Dendrophthoe incarnata (Jack) Miq.MalaysiaLFPoulticeMixed with Curcuma longa L and rice to make poultice to treat ringworm [159]
89Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, VietnamLF, WPPoultice, decoctionSores, ulcers, other skins infections, protective medicine after childbirth, cough, hypertension, cancer, diabetes, tonsil problem [18,25,159,160]Antioxidant (MeOH extract, DPPH), Tyrosinase activity [160]
90Taxillus umbellifer (Schult. f.) DanserIndonesia, Malaysia, VietnamRT, LFDecoction drink, poulticeFever, headache, wounds [159]
91Erianthemum dregei (Eckl. & Zeyh.) Tiegh.Southern & Eastern AfricaBKMixed with milkPowdered mixed with milk to treat stomach problems in children [161]
92Loranthus globosus RoxbMalaysia, Indo-ChinaLF, ST, FTPoultice (leaves), juiceHeadache, expel afterbirth, cough [162]Antimicrobial, cytotoxicity (brine shrimp) [163], toxicity (Evan’s rat) [164]
93Loranthus spec div.IndonesiaWPPoultice, decoctionAriola, varicella, diarrhea, ankylostomiasis, morbilli (gabag), cancer [25]
94Macrosolen robinsonii (Gamble) DanserVietnamLFDecoctionEnlarged abdomen (diuretic tea) [165]
95Macrosolen cochinchinensis (Lour.) Tiegh.Malaysia, Indo-ChinaST, LFDecoction, juice, poulticeExpel after birth, headache, cough [165]
96Scurrula atropurpurea (Blume) DanserIndonesia, PhilippinesLF, ST, WPDecoctionMouthwash (gargled), cancer (breast, throat cancer), cowpox, chickenpox, diarrhea, hookworm, measles, hepatitis, and cancer [166,167,168]Cancer cell invasion inhibitory effects [169,170]
97Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) DanserMalaysiaLF, WPDecoction, poulticeDecocted whole plant (mixed with Millettia sericea (Vent.) Wight & Arnott) is used as bathing to relieve malaria, decocted leaves as protective medicine after childbirth, pounded leaves to treat wounds, snake bites [166]Antiviral (HSV-1 and poliovirus) and cytotoxic activities on murine and human cancer lines (3LL, L1210, K562, U251, DU145, MCF-7) [171]
98Scurrula parasitica L.China, VietnamWPDecoctionSwelling, back pains, numbness, soreness of limbs, hypertension, galactagogue, quieting uterus (no contraction), reducing lumbago, bone strengthening. [166]Anti-cancer (flavonoids extract, Leukimia cell line HL-60) [172], NF-κB inhibition [173], recovery of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity [174], Antioxidant (extracts, DPPH) [175] anti-cancer (Polysacharide fraction, S180, K562 and HL-60 cell lines, MTT assay) [176], anti-obesity activity using porcine pancreatic lipase assay (EtOH extract, PPL; triacylglycerol lipase, EC[177], neuroprotective activity (168, H2O2-induced oxidative damage in NG108-15 cells)[178], antibacterial (EtOH extract, MRSA) [179]
99Viscum aethiopicum [sic]Southern & Eastern AfricaLFDecoction (tea)Diarrhea [161]
100Viscum capense L.f.Southern & Eastern AfricaST, FTDecoction, externalWart, asthma, irregular menstruation, hemorrhage [161]Antimicrobial activity (stems extract), Anticonvulsant activity (MeOH extract, albino mice) [180]
101Viscum pauciflorum L.f.Southern & Eastern AfricaWPDecoctionAstringent [161]
102Viscum rotundifolium L.f.Southern & Eastern AfricaWPExternalWart [161]Immunoassay (stem, aqueous extracts, T cell activity in ruminants) [181]
103Medinilla radicans Blume LF, RTLeaves eaten to treat dysentery, adventitious roots applied as poultice to wound, young leaves to skin disorders Dysentery, wound and skin disorders [123]
104Pachycentria constricta (Bl) BlumeIndonesiaTBTubers are boiled and eatenHemorrhoids [18,71]
105Ficus annulata BlumeIndonesiaLF, RTLeaves decoction to treat fever, the root to treat Hansen diseasesFever and Hansen diseases [168]
106Ficus deltoidea JackIndonesia, Malaysia, ThailandLF, RT, FTDrink (decoction), oitmentLeucorrhea, headache, fever, diabetes, high blood pressure, skin infection, aphrodisiac agent, ornament [71,182,183,184]Toxicity (aqueous extract, rats) [185], anti-nociceptive [186], antioxidant (leaves aqueous extracs, redn. power of iron (III), superoxide anion (O2-) scavenging, xanthine oxidase (XOD), nitric oxide (NO·) and lipid peroxidn) [187], anti-melanogenic effect (extract, B16F1 melanoma cells, MTT assay) [188], anti-cancer [189], hypoglycemic activity (extract, rodents) [45,188] antimicrobial activity (extract) [190], Anti-inflammatory [191]
107Ficus lacor Buch.-Ham.IndiaBK, LT, BD, SDDecoction, poulticeDecocted stem bark to treat gastric and ulcer, latex to treat boils (external), typhoid and fever (internal), decocted bud to treat ulcer, leucorrhoea, Seed as tonic for stomach disorder [157,192,193,194]The medicated liquor has effects of relaxing muscles and tendons, activating collateral flow, promoting blood circulation, dispelling blood stasis, expelling wind, removing dampness, and relieving pain [195]
108Ficus natalensis Hochst. (semi epiphytic, secondary terrestrial)Uganda, Tanzania, Senegal, West Africa, South Africa, LF, LT, RT, BKDecoction, poulticeRoot was used to treat lumbago, headache, arthritis, cataract and cough, Leaves were used to treat snakes bite, malaria, dysentery, ulcers, wounds and used as septic ears [196] Antibacterial, antimalarial, and/or antileishmania activities were obsd. in some crude extracts., and five of these exts. showed a significant cytotoxicity against human tumor cells [41]
109Ficus parietalis BlumeVietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, IndonesiaRTDecoctionStomach-ache [184]
110Ficus pumila L.VietnamFT, LF, LTDrink (decoction)Diarrahea, hemaroid, rheumatic, anemia, haematura, dysentery, dropsy, galactoge, tonic for impotence, lumbago, anthelmintic agent, externally used to treat carbuncles [184]Against T-cell leukemia [197], antimicrobial [198]
111Poikilospermum suaveolens (Blume) Merr.Indonesia, ThailandBKDecoctionWater from the stem for drink, aide the secretion of waste products from the vagina, pain, numbness, stomach ulcer [25,199,200]Anti-viral (MeOH extract) [201]
112Acampe carinata (Griff.) PanigrahiHimalaya, NepalWPDecoctionRheumatism, sciatica, neuralgia, beneficial in secondary syphilis and uterine diseases [202]
113Acriopsis liliifolia (J.Koenig) Seidenf.MalaysiaLF, RTDecoction of the roots and leaves Fever [203]
114Anoectochilus formosanus HayataTaiwanWPDecoctionFever, anti-inflammatory agent, diabetes, liver disorder, chest and abdominal pain [204]Anti-inflammatory (water extract, rat paw), hepatoprotective (water extract, rat, SGOT-OPT) [205], anti-hyperliposis (414, rat induced) [206], ameliorative effect (water extract, ovariectomised rat) [207], antioxidant (water extract, DPPH) [208], anti-hyperglycemic (water extract, diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin) [209], anti-cancer (extracts, breast cancer MCF-7 cell) [210], liver regeneration (extract, rat) [211,212], Hepatoprotective (414, CCl4 induced rat) anti-inflammatory (414, lps stimulate mice) [213,214], anti-cancer (polysaccharide water extract, protate cancer cell lin PC3) [215]
115Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl.Taiwan, China, JapanWPDecoctionFever, snake bite, lung and liver diseases, hypertension, child malnutrition [216]Hypoglycemic effect (414, streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats) [217], hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects (water extract, alloxan-induced diabetic mice, DPPH) [218]
116Ansellia africana Lindl.Southern & Eastern AfricaPD, ST, ST, RTDecoctionPedi is used to treat cough, the stem is used as aphrodisiac, used as emetic agent [161]
117Bulbophyllum kwangtungense Schltr.China, JapanTBTonicTo treat pulmonary tuberculosis, promote body liquid production, reduce fever, hemostatic agent [219]Anti-tumor activities (456, 457, 458, against HeLa and K562 human tumor cell line) [220]
118Bulbophyllum odoratissimum (Sm.) Lindl. ex Wall.China, Burma, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Nepal, Bhutan, IndiaWPDecoctionTo treat pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic inflammation and fracture [221]Anti-tumor (bibenzyl, inhibiting NO microphage) [221,222], anti-cancer (225, 470, 471, 475, 476, 478, 479, 482, 484, human leukaemia cell lines K562 and HL-60, human lung adenocarcinoma A549, human hepatoma BEL-7402 and human stomach cancer SGC-790) [223], anti-cancer (human leukemia cell lines K562 and HL-60, human lung adenocarcinoma A549, human hepatoma BEL-7402 and human stomach cancer cell lines SGC-7901) Anti-cancer (473 and 474, human leukemia cell lines K562 and HL-60, human lung adenocarcinoma A549, human hepatoma BEL-7402 and human stomach cancer SGC-7901) [224]
119Bulbophyllum vaginatum (Lindl.) Rchb.f.MalaysiaWPJuiceJuice of the plant is instilled in the ear to cure earache [130]
120Catasetum barbatum (Lindl.) Lindl.Japan, Guiana, ParaguayanWPDecoctionFebrifuge, anti-inflammatory [46]Anti-inflammatory (505, rat) [225]
121Coelogyne spIndonesiaRTDecoctionHeadache, fever [71]
122Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw.Thailand, VietnamLFDecoction (internal), juice from heated or crushed leaves.Otitis media, colds, irregular periods, arthritis, sores, burns, tonic [226] Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory (EtOH extract, mice) [227]
123Cymbidium canaliculatum R.BrAustraliaPdBChewed, poulticeDysentery, boils, sores, wounds, itschy skin, fractured arms over the break [154,228]
124Cymbidium ensifolium (L.) SwTaiwan, VietnamLF, RT, FL, WP, RTDecoctionDiuretic agent (leaves), pectoral agent (root), eye problem (flower), cough, lung, gastrointestinal problems and sedative [226]
125Cymbidium goeringii (Rchb.f.) Rchb.f.Japan, China, Korea, Thailand, Vietnam, IndiaWPDecoctionHypertension, diuretic agent [229]Anti-inflammatory (478, RAW 264.7 cells) [230], anti-hypertensive (515, rat), diuretic activity (515, rats) [229]
126Cymbidium madidum Lindl.AustraliaPdBChewedDysentery [154]
127Dendrobium affine (Decne.) Steud.AustraliaPdBPoultice, externalChrushed pseudobulbs (sticky) is applied to itchy skins, boils, infected skin lesion, minor burns [154]
128Dendrobium aloifolium (Blume) Rchb.f.South East AsiaLFPoulticeHeadache [18]
129Dendrobium amoenum Wall. ex Lindl.ChinaLFDried and groundSkin diseases [231]Antioxidant (519, NBT), antibacterial (519, diffusion) [231]
130Dendrobium chryseum RolfeAustraliaLFDecoctionDiabetes [232]Antioxidant (526, 530, 532, DPPH) [233]
131Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl.ChinaLFDecoctionDiabetes [234]Inhibitory effect of atropine on salivary secretion (extracts, rabbit) [235], anti-hyperglicemic (extract, streptozotocin-induced diabetic (STZ-DM) rats) [234], antioxidant (polysaccharide, 10-phenanthroline-Fe2+-H2O2 systems and ammonium peroxydisulfate/N,N,N’,N’-tetra-methylethanediamine systems) [236] antioxidant (555, 556, DPPH) [237], antioxidant (558, 559, 560, DPPH) [238], anti-tumor (soluble polysacharride, human neuroblastoma (SH2SY5Y) induced by SPD was observed and analyzed by Hoechst stain method) [239]
132Dendrobium canaliculatum var. foelschei (F.Muell.) Rupp & T.E.HuntAustraliaPdBPoultice, externalChrushed pseudobulbs (sticky) is applied to infected skin and cuts [154]
133Dendrobium crumenatum Sw.Malaysia, IndonesiaLF, PdTBLeaves pounded, bulbs heated to produce juice and applied as external usesAcne (leaves), infected ears (pseudo-tubers) [240,241] Antimicrobial [242]
134Dendrobium chrysanthum Wall. ex Lindl.ChinaLFDried and groundSkin diseases, immune regulator, anti-pyretic, improve eyesight [243,244]Anti-inflammation (590, macrophages were harvested from 2-month-old male C57BL/6J mice) [244]
135Dendrobium densiflorum Lindl.ChinaLFTonicPromote body fluid production [245]
136Dendrobium faciferum J.J.SmIndonesiaSTDriedFor twist work (craft) [246]
137Dendrobium fimbriatum Hook.Japan, ChinaLFDecoction, pastePromote body fluid production, set fractured bone (paste) [247]Antioxidant (water-soluble crude polysaccharide (DFHP), DPPH) [248]
138Dendrobium loddigesii RolfeChinaLFDecoctionPromote body fluid production, reduce fever, nourish the stomach., anti-cancer agent [249]Inhibitors of Na+, K+-ATPase of rat kidney (607, 608) [250], antiplatelet aggregation activity (479, 523, 606, rabit platelet) [251], antioxidant (DPPH), anti NO production (activated macrophages-like cell line, RAW264.7) [252]
139Dendrobium moniliforme (L.) Sw. China, TaiwanSTDecocted dried stemAnti-pyretic, analgesic, aphrodisiac, stomachic, tonic agents [253]Anti-inflammatory (552, RAW 264.7 cells) [254], hypoglicemic (polisaccharide, mice) [255], antioxidant (polisacharide) [256]
140Dendrobium moschatum (Buch.-Ham) S.wNepalLFJuiceCure earache [257]
141Dendrobium nobile Lindl.China, IndonesiaWPTonicFever, reduce mouth dryness, aphrodisiac, promote body fluid production, nourish stomach, anorexia, lumbago, impotence [240,258,259,260,261]Immunomodulatory activity (656, 660, 661, 662, 663, lymphocyte proliferation test MTT test) [262,263], antioxidant (478, 523, 524, 528, 584, 641, 672, 673, 674, DPPH) anti-NO (478, 523, 524, 528, 584, 641, 672, 673, 674, murine macrophage-like cell line RAW 264.7) [264], antioxidant (water-soluble polysaccharide (DNP), DPPH) [265], antimicrobial (Extracts), antitumour (extracts, Dalton’s lymphoma ascites (DLA) cells w), induction of in vitro lipid peroxidation (extracts, TBARS) [266], NO inhibition (475, 523, 542, 632, 633, 634, 665–671, murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells) [267], anti-tumor (polisachacaride extracts, sarcoma 180 in vivo and HL-60)[268]
142Dendrobium pachyphyllum (Kuntze) Bakh.f.IndonesiaWPDecoctionHydropsy [246]
143Dendrobium purpureum Roxb.Indonesia, MalaysiaLFCrushed and heated to make poulticeNail fungal infection [240]
144Dendrobium salaccense (Blume) Lindl.IndonesiaLFFragranceFragrance [246]
145Dendrobium teretifolium R.Br.South-Pacific IslandLFDecoctionSevere headache, other pains [269,270]
146Dendrobium catenatum Lindl.ChinaLFDecoctionAnxiety and panic [271]
147Dendrobium utile J.J.Sm.IndonesiaSTDriedTwist work [246]
148Dichaea muricata (Sw.) Lindl.Central, South AmericanLFDecoction (wash)Eye infection [260]
149Eulophia speciosa (R.Br.) BolusIndonesiaRTDecoctionAnalgesic [246]
150Epidendrum strobiliferum Rchb.f.China, KoreaSTInfusion, decoctionAnalgesic [272]Analgesic (676, 677 exhibited notable analgesic action at 3 mg/kg, causing 86 and 83% inhibition of abdominal constriction, respectively [272], antinociceptive effect (MeOH extract, methanolic ext. (ME) [273]
151Epidendrum rigidum Jacq.Mexico, North Sudamerica, AntillesSTInfusion, decoctionReplenish body fluid [274]Phytotoxin (chloroform-methanol extract) [274]
152Mycaranthes pannea (Lindl.) S.C.Chen & J.J.WoodVietnam, MalaysiaWPExternal, medicinal bathMedicinal bath to treat ague and malaria fever, fractures, bruises, skin complaints, dislocated joint to relieve severe pain, swelling, dislocation and fracture [123,275,276]
153Eriopsis biloba Lindl.AmericaSTPoulticeSore gums and mouth membranes [260]
154Grammatophyllum scriptum (L.) BlumeIndonesia, ThailandBL, SD, STPoulticePseudo bulb mixed with curcuma and salt applied to sores and abdomen to expel worms, to treat dropsy and aphthae, seeds mixed with food to treat dysentery, aphthae, crushed plant mixed with rice liquor to treat snake bite, scorpions’ and centipedes’ stings [246,277]
155Jumellea fragrans (Thouars) Schltr.MadagascarLF, STDecoctionAnti-spasmodic, anti-asthmatic agents, mixed leaves of Ziziphus mauritana, Mussaenda arcuate to treat eczema (deecotion), mixed with Eugenia uniflora to treat diarrhea [24]
156Liparis condylobulbon Rchb.f.IndonesiaPdB, LFChewing, externalIntestinal complaints and constipation. (eastern Sulawesi, ambon), tormina, abscess [246,278]
157Liparis nervosa (Thunb.) Lindl.China, Thailand, MalaysiaWPDecoction, externalStop internal/external bleeding, treat snake bites [278]
158Neottia ovata (L.) Bluff & Fingerh.SpainTBTinctureStomach diseases [279]Anti-viral (extract, SARS-CoV Frankfurt 1 strain [280]
159Masdevallia uniflora Ruiz & Pav.Mexico, south AmericaWPDecoctionFacilitate urination (pregnant women), reduce bladder inflammation [260]
160Camaridium densum (Lindl.) M.A.BlancoMexicoWPDecoctionAnalgesic, relaxant agents [281]Spasmolytic activity (667, 690, 693, 694, 695, Wistar rat) [37], antinociceptive activity (extract, mice) [281]
161Nidema boothii (Lindl.) Schltr.MalaysiaWPDecoctionRelaxant agent [282]Spasmolytic effects (471, 478, 488, 508, 671, 696, 697, 699, 700, 702, guinea ileum pig model) [282]
162Oberonia lycopodioides (J.Koenig) OrmerodMalaysiaLFPoulticeBoils [123,283]
163Oberonia mucronata (D.Don) Ormerod & Seidenf.China, VietnamWPDecoctionRheumatism, promote blood circulation, inflammation of the bladder/ureter, bruises and fractures, detoxicant, diuretic agent [284]
164Erycina pusilla (L.) N.H.Williams & M.W.ChaseMaliWPDecoctionLacerations [260]
165Otochilus lancilabius Seidenf.Bhutan, Nepal, India, China (Tibet), Laos and VietnamWPPillsAntiemetic, febrifuge for stomach inflammation (bad-tshad), and allays hyperdipsia and dehydration [23]
166Phragmipedium pearcei (Rchb.f.) Rauh & SenghasSouth AmericaWPDecoctionStomachache [260]
167Pholidota articulata Lindl.Himalaya, NepalWP Whole plant: bone fractures [202]
168Pholidota chinensis Lindl.China, IndiaPdBTinctureScrofula, toothache, stomachache, chronic bronchitis, duodenal ulcer [285]Antioxidant (475, 539, 667, 670, 671, 711, 712, 717, 722, 723, 726, (DPPH), anti-inflammatory (475, 539, 667, 670, 671, 711, 712, 717, 722, 723, 726, inhibitory activity on NO production from activatedmacrophage-like cell line, RAW 264.7)[286], antioxidant (715, 741, 742, 746, 747, 749, 750, DPPH), anti-inflammatory (as above, inhibitory activity on NO production from activated macrophages-like cell line, RAW 264.7) [285]
169Renanthera moluccana BlumeIndonesiaWPOrnamentOrnament [246]
170Rhynchostylis retusa (L.) BlumeHimalaya, Nepal, IndiaLF Rheumatic, hepaoprotective agent [96,202]
171Scaphyglottis livida (Lindl.) Schltr.MexicoWPDecoctionAnalgesic, anti-inflammatory agents [281,287]Spasmolytic (471, 475, 714, 754, 755, rat ileum rings) [288], antinociceptive (extracts, male mice ICR) [281], acute toxicity (extract, male mice ICR) [287]
172Vanda tessellata (Roxb.) Hook. ex G.DonIndia, Sri Lanka, BurmaLF, RT, FLLeaves pounded to make juice, paste, extract (alcoholic) of the root and flowerFever (as paste), otitis (dropped juice), the root to treat bronchitis, rheumatic, dyspepsia, sciatica, inflammation, otitis, nervous problem, fever and as aphrodisiac, laxative, tonic (for liver) agent [140,289,290,291]Cholinergic activity (glycoside fraction), anti-arthritic (extract, albino rat) [292], anti-inflammatory (extract), antidiabetic (extract, rat) [291,293]
173Papilionanthe teres (Roxb.) Schltr.IndonesiaWPOrnamentOrnamental [294]Anti-aging (758, 759, HaCaT cytochrome C oxidase) [295]
174Vanilla griffithii Rchb.f.IndonesiaWPEatenEdible [294]
175Vanilla planifolia Jacks. ex AndrewsIndonesia, MexicoFT, SThDecoctionFever, rheumatism, hysteria, increase energy and muscular system [25,259,294]Antimicrobial activity (extract) [296]
176Peperomia galioides KunthPeruWPPoultice (external), drink (internal)Chrused plant is used to treat wounds, cuts, plant juice is used to treat gastric ulcers [297]Antibacterial (oil) [298,299]
177Piper retrofractum VahlIndonesia FT, RTDrink (decoction)Anticonvulsion, antivomiting, diarrhea, dysentery, constipation, headache [300]Anti-convulsan (776, mice) [301], cytotoxicity (extract, 779) [302], anti-platelet aggregation (extract) [303], anti-vector (extract, mosquito larvae) [304,305], antioxidant (228, 283, 334, 574, 771, 772, 782, 783, DPPH) [306], antileishmanial activity (extracts, leishmania donovani) [307], anti-obesity (776, 777, C57BL/6J mice) [308]
178Hydnophytum formicarum JackIndonesia, Philippines, ThailandTBPoultice, decoction, powderPoultice to treat swelling, headache, decoction to treat liver, intestinal complaints, powder as anthelmintic, heart tonic, antidiabetic agent and to treat skin, bone, knee, ankle, lung diseases [278]Anti-tumor (extracts, against human tumor cell lines, HeLa and A549) [309], xanthine oxidase inhibitory (MeOH extract, assayed spectrophotometrically under aerobic conditions [310], antimicrobial, cytotoxicity (226, 786, 787, against HuCCA-1 and KB cell lines) [311], trigger cytochrome C release in treated MCF-7 cell (786, ELISA) [312], anti-cancer (786, the human breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7) [313]
179Myrmecodia tuberosa JackIndonesiaPTDrink (decocted)Swelling, headache [18,71,314]Immunomodulatory effect (EtOH fractions) [315]
180Myrmecodia pendens Merr. & L.M.PerryPapuaPTDecoctionRheumatism, headache, renal problems, tumor [316]
181Scaphium macropodum (Miq.) Beumée ex K.Heyne (hemi-epiphyte)IndonesiaRTDrink (decoction)Nervous system problem [71]
182Premna parasitica BlumeIndonesiaLFDrink (decoction)Fever [25]
183Viscum articulatum Burm.f.Cambodia, India, Taiwan, ChinaWPPoultice, decoctionDecoction to treat bronchitis, skin tumour, neuralgia, arthritis and as tonic, sedative, febrifuge, crushed plant to treat cut [317]Toxicity (extract, mice) [318], anti-tumor (820, MTT assay) [319], anti-inflammatory (1234718, superoxide inhibition) [320], cytotoxicity and anti-HIV-1 activity (shown by isolated compounds including 801, 804, 803, 813, 814, 815, 824, 828); MDAMB-435 and Hela cells, HIV-1ШB-infected C8166 cells) [321], anti-nephrotoxic (127, gentamicin-induced renal damage in Wistar rats) [322], antioxidant, anti-inflammatory (810, 811, 812, 822, 825, 829, 830, 831, 832, 833, 834, DPPH, NO production and cell viability assay. The murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7) [323], diuretic activity (MeOH extract, male rats) [324], antiepileptic activity (MeOH exctract, rat) [325], anti-hypertension (glucocorticoid-induced hypertension, -nitro-l-arginine methyl in rats) [326,327], antioxidant (polisacharide fraction, DPPH) [328]
184Viscum ovalifolium DC.Cambodia, MalaysiaLF, WPPoultice, externalLeaves (poultice) to treat neuralgia, as herbal bath to treat fever in children, ash mixed with sulphur, coconut oil to treat pustular itches [329]
185Hedychium ongi cornotum Griff.IndonesiaRZ, RTDrink (decoction)Rhizome is used to treat syphilis; root is used to treat worm [25]
Note: na: not mentioned; ST: stem, PT: pith; TB: tuber; SP: spore; BK: bark; LT: latex; NT: nutmeg; SD: seed; FT: fruit; BD: buds; PD: pedi; PdB: pseudobulbs; FL: flower; PdTB: pseudotuber; BL: bulbs: STh: sheath; WP: whole; LF: leaf; RT: root; RZ: rhizome.
Table 2. Phyctochemical constituents of epiphytic medicinal plants.
Table 2. Phyctochemical constituents of epiphytic medicinal plants.
NoEpiphyte SpeciesConstituents
Fern species
1Adiantum caudatum L., Mant16-hentriacontanone 1, 19α-hydroxyferna-7,9(11)-diene 2, 29-norhopan-22-ol 3, 3α-hydroxy-4α-methoxyfilicane 4, 8α-hydroxyfernan-25,7β-olide 5, adiantone 6, filic-3-ene 7, hentriacontane 8, isoadiantone 9, quercetin-3-O-glucoside 10, β-sitosterol 11, β-sitosterol 11, β-sitosterol glucoside 12 [330,331,332]
2Asplenium nidus L.(-)-epiafzelechin 3-O-β-d-allopyranoside 13, homoserine 14 [333]
3Stenochlaena palustris (Burm. F.) Bedd.1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(2S*,3R*,4E,8Z)-2-N-[(2R)-hydroxytetracosanoyl]octadecasphinga 4,8-dienine 15, 3-formylindole 16, 3-oxo-4,5-dihydro-α-ionyl-β-d-lucopyranoside 17, kaempferol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 18, kaempferol 3-O-(3′,6′-di-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside 19, kaempferol 3-O-(3′-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-(6′-O-E-feruloyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside 20, kaempferol 3-O-(3′-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside 21, kaempferol 3-O-(6′-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside 22, lutein 23, stenopaluside 24, stenopalustrosides A–E 25–29, β-sitosterol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 30 [334,335]
4Araiostegia divaricata (Blume) M. Kato(-)-epicatechin 3-O-β-d-(2”-O-vanillyl)allopyranoside 31, (-)-epicatechin 3-O-β-D-(2′-trans-cinnamoyl)allopyranoside 32, (-)-epicatechin 3-O-β-D-(3”-O-vanillvl)allopyranoside 33, (-)-epicatechin 3-O-β-d-(3′-trans-cinnamoyl)allopyranoside 34, (-)-epicatechin 3-O-β-d-allopyranoside 35, (-)-epicatechin 3-O-β-d-allopyranoside 35, (+)-catechin 3-O-β-allopyranoside 36, 24-norferna-4 (23) 37, 4β-carboxymethyl-(-)-epicatechin 38, 4β-carboxymethyl-(-)-epicatechin methyl ester 39, 4β-carboxymethyl-(-)-epicatechin potasium 40, 9(11)-diene 41, cyanin 42, davallic acid 43, epiafzelechin-(4β→8)-epicatechin 3-O-β-d-allopyranoside 44, epicatechin-(4β→6)-epicatechin-(4β→8)-epicatechin-(4β→6)-epicatechin-D-glucooctono-δ-lactone enediol 45, epicatechin-(4β→8)-4β-carboxymethylpicatechin 46, hop-21-ene 47, monardein 48, pelargonin 49, procyanidin B-2 3”-O-β-d-allopyranoside 50, sodium salts 51 [59,60,336,337,338,339,340]
5Davallia solida (G. Forst.) Sw.18-diene 52, 18-diene 52, 19α-hydroxyfernenes 53, 19α-hydroxyfilic-3-ene 54, 2-C-β-d-glucopyranosyl-1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone 55, 2-C-β-d-xylopyranosyl-1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone 56, 2-C-β-d-xylopyranosyl-1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone 56, 30-O-p-hydroxybenzoylmangiferin 57, 3-O-p-hydroxybenzoylmangiferin 58, 40-O-phydroxybenzoylmangiferin 59, 4-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-2,6,4′-trihydroxybenzophenone 60, 4β-carboxymethyl-(-)-epicatechin 38, 4β-carboxymethyl-(-)-epicatechin methyl ester 39, 60-O-p-hydroxybenzoylmangiferin 61, eriodictyol 62, eriodictyol-8-C-β-d-glucopyranoside 63, fena-9(11) 64, fern-7-en-19α-ol 65, fern-9(11)-en-19α-ol 66, ferna-7 67, filic-3-en-19α-ol 68, filica-3,18,20-triene 69, filica-3,18-diene 70, icariside E3 71, icariside E5 72, mangiferin 73 [66,68,338,341,342]
6Huperzia carinata (Desv. ex Poir.) Treviscarinatumins A, B, and C 74, 75, 76 [74]
7Huperzia phlegmaria (L.) Rothm14β,21α,29-trihydroxyserratan-3β-yl dihydrocaffeate (lycophlegmariol D) 77, 21α,24-dihydroxyserrat-14-en-3β-yl 4-hydroxycinnamate (lycophlegmariol C) 78, 21β,24,29-trihydroxyserrat-14-en-3β-yl dihydrocaffeate (lycophlegmariol B) 79, 21β,29-dihydroxyserrat-14-en-3α-yl dihydrocaffeate (lycophlegmariol A) 80, 21β-hydroxy-serrat-14-en-3α-ol 81, 21β-hydroxy-serrat-14-en-3α-yl acetate 82, 8,11,13-abietatriene-3β,12-dihydroxy-7-one (margocilin) 83, 8-deoxy-13-dehydroserratinine 84, 8-deoxyserratinidine 85, acrifoline 86, annotine 87, annotinine 88, dihydrolycopodine 89, epidihydrofawcettidine 90, fawcettidine 91, huperzine A 92, lycododine 93, lycoflexine 94, lycophlegmarin 95, lycophlegmarin 95, lycophlegmarine 96, lycophlegmine 97, lycopodine 98, malycorin A 99, malycorins B, C 100, 101, N,N′-dimethylphlegmarine 102, phlegmanol A–E 103–107, phlegmaric acid 108, α-obscurine 109, β-obscurine 110 [77,343,344,345,346,347,348]
8Huperzia megastachya (Baker) Tardieu21-epi-serratenediol 111, 21-epi-serratenediol-3-acetate 112, lycoclavanol 113, megastachine 114, phlegmanol-D 115, serratenediol 116, serratenediol-3-acetate 117, serratenonediol diacetate 118, tohogenol diacetate 119 [349,350]
9Nephrolepis biserrata (Sw.) Schott1β,11α-diacetoxy-11,12-epoxydrim-7-ene 120, 1β,3β,11α-triacetoxy-11,12-epoxydrim-7-ene 121, 1β,6α,11α-triacetoxy-11,12-epoxydrim-7-ene 122, sequoyitol 123 [339,351]
10Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C. Preslfern-9(11)-ene 124, hentriacontanoic acid 125, myristic acid octadecylester 126, oleanolic acid 127, sequoyitol (patent) 123, triacontanol 128, β-sitosterol 11 [352,353]
11Botrychum lanuginosum Wall.ex Hook & Grev.(6′-O-palmitoyl)-sitosterol-3-O-β-d-glucoside 129, 1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(2S,3R,4E,8Z)-2-[(2R-hydroxy hexadecanoyl) amino]-4,8-octadecadiene-1, 3-diol 130, 30-nor-21β-hopan-22-one 131, apigenin 132, β-sitosterol 133, daucosterol 134, luteolin 135, luteolin-7-O-glucoside 136, thunberginol A 137 [354]
12Drynaria roosii Nakaikekaempferol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside-7-O-α-l-arabinoside 138, (2R)-naringin 139, (2S)-narigenin-7-O-β-d-glucoside 140, kaemperol 3-O-α-l-rhamnosyl-7-O-β-d-glucoside 141, luteolin-7-O-β-d-neohesperidoside 142, maltol glucoside 143, (-)-epicatechin 144, 12-O-caffeoyl-12-hydroxyldodecanoic acid 145, xanthogalenol 146, naringenin 147, kushennol F 148, sporaflavone G 149, kuraninone 150, leachianone A 151, 8-phenylkaempferol 152, kaempferol 153, chiratone 154, fern-9(11)-ene 155, hop-22(29)-ene 156, isoglaucanone 157, dryocrassol 158, dryocrassol acetate 159, (+)-afzelechin-3-O-β-allopyranoside 160, (+)-afzelechin-6-C-β-glucopyranoside 161, 4α-carboxymethyl-(+)-catechin methyl ester 162, (-)-epiafzelechin-(4β→8)-(-)-epiafzelechin-(4β→8)-4β-carboxymethyl-(-)-epiafzelechin methyl ester 163, (-)-epiafzelechin-(4β→8)-4β-carboxymethyl-(-)-epicatechin methyl ester 164, (-)-epiafzelechin-(4β→8)-4α-carboxymethy-(-)-epiafzelechin ethyl ester 165, (-)-epiafzelechin-3-O-β-d-allopyranoside 166, (-)-epicatechin-3-O-β-d-allopyranoside 167, (+)-catechin 168, 4β-carboxymethyl-(-)-epiafzelechin methyl ester 169, 4β-carboxymethyl-(-)-epiafzelechin 170, (-)-epiafzelechin-(4β→82→O→7)-epiafzelechin-(4β→8)-epiafzelechin 171, (-)-epiafzelechin 172, (-)-epiafzelechin-(4β→8)-4β-carboxymethyl-epiafzelechin methyl ester 173, epicatechin-(4β→8)-epicatechin 174, (+)-afzelechin 175, (+)-epicatechin-3-O-β-d-allopyranoside 176, (-)-epicatechin-8-C-β-d-gluclopyranoside 177, (-)-epiafzelechin-5-O-β-d-allopyranoside 178, drynachromoside A 179, drynachromoside B 180, fortunamide 181, curcumine 182, demethoxycurcumine 183, bisdemethoxycurcumine 184, bavachinine 185, isobavachalcone 186, (-)-epicatechin 144, liquiritine 187, bakuchiol 188, protocatechuic acid 189, (R)-5,7,3′,5′-tetrahydroxy-flavonone 7-O-neohesperidoside 190, (2S)-5,7,3′,5′-tetrahydroxyflavonone 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 191, 5,7,3′,5′-tetrahydroxflavanone 192, 3′-lavandulyl-4-methoxy-2,2′,4′,6′-tetrahydroxyylcalcone 193, 5,7-dihydroxychromone-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 194, 5,7-dyhidroxychromone-7-O-neohesperidosyl 195 [43,94,355,356,357,358]
13Drynaria propinqua (Wall. ex Mett.) Bedd(-)-epiafzelechin 3-O-β-d-allopyranoside 13 [359]
14Drynaria quercifolia (L.) J.Sm.friedelin 196, epifriedelinol 197, β-amyrin 198, β-sitosterol 11, 3-β-d-glucopyranoside 199, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid 200, acetyllupeol 201 [97,360]
15Drynaria rigidula (Sw.) Bedd.fern-9(11)ene 202, hop-22(29)-ene 156, γ-sitosterol 203, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid 200, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid 204, 4-hydroxyphenyl-1-(2-arabinopyranosyl)-tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol 205, 4-hydroxyphenyl-1-tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol 206, kaempferitrin 207, 3,5-dihydroxy-flavone-7-O-β-rhamnopyranosyl-4′-O-β-glucopyranoside 208 [92,361]
16Phymatosorus scolopendria (Burm. f.) Pic. Serm.1,2-benzopyrone (coumarin) 209 [47]
17Pyrrosia lingua (Thunb.) Farw.diploptene 210, β-sitosterol 11, octanordammarane 211, dammara-18(28),21-diene 212, (18S)-18-hydroxydammar-21-en 213, (18R)-18-hydroxydammar-21-ene 214, (18S)-pyrrosialactone 215, (18R)-pyrrosialactone 216, (18S)-pyrrosialactol 217, 3-deoxyocotillol 218, dammara-18(28),21-diene 212, cyclohopenol 219, cyclohopanediol 220, hop-22(29)-en-28-al 221 [362,363,364]
18Pyrrosia petiolosa (Christ) Chingα-tocopherol 222, diploptene 210, 24-methylene-9,19-cyclolanost-3β-yl acetate 223, cycloeucalenol 224, β-sitosterol 11, daucosterol 134, vanillic acid 225, protocatechualdehyde 226, hydrocaffeic acid 227, caffeic acid 228, 7-O-[6-O-(α-l-arabinofuranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]gossypetin 229, kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside-7-O-α-l-arabinofuranoside 230 [365,366,367,368]
19Pyrrosia sheareri (Baker) Chingdiploptene 210, β-sitosterol 11, vanillic acid 225, protocatechuic acid 189, mangiferin 73, fumaric acid 231, sucrose 232 [42]
20Psilotum nudum (L.) P. Beauvapigenin di-C-glycoside 233, 7,4′,4′-tri-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 234, 4′,4′-di-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 235, 7,4′-di-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 236, 3′-hydroxypsilotin (6-[4′-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3′-hydroxyphenyl]-5,6-dihydro-2-oxo-2H-pyran) 237, 24-methylene-5α-lanost-8-en-3β-ol 238, 24β-methyl-25-dehydrolophenol 239, codisterol 240, isofucosterol 241, 24-methylene-25-hydroxyphenol 242, avenasterol 243, psilotin 244 [368,369,370,371]
21Acrostichum aureum L.quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucoside 245, ponasterone A 246, lupeol 247, friedelin 196, β-sitosterol 11, stigmasterol 248, campesterol 249, tetracosanoic acid 250, ursolic acid 251, gallic acid 252, (2R,3S)-sulfated pterosin C 253, (2S,3S)-sulfated pterosin C 254, (2S,3S)-pterosin C 255, (2R)-pterosin P 256, patriscabratine 257, tetracosane 258, quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucoside 259, quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucosyl-(6→1)-α-l-rhamnoside 260, quercetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnoside 261, quercetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnosyl-7-O-β-d-glucoside 262, kaempferol 153 [35,372,373,374]
22Selaginella involvens (P.Beauv.) Springhexadecanoic acid 263, stearic acid 264, β-sitosterol 11, stigmasterol 248, amentoflavone 265, β-d-glucopyranoside 266, (3β)-cholest-5-en-3yl 267, β-amyrin 198 [375]
23Vittaria elongate Sw.vittarin-A-F 268–273, 3-O-acetylniduloic acid 274, ethyl 3-O-acetylniduloate 275, methyl 4-O-coumaroylquinate 276, vittarilide-A, B 277, 278, vittariflavone 279, methyl 4-O-caffeoylquinate 280, ethyl 4-O-caffeoylquinate 281, methyl 5-O-caffeoylquinate 282, apigenin 132, vitexin 283, 5,7-dihydroxy-3′,4′,5′-trimethoxyflavone 284, amentoflavone 265, trans-p-coumaric acid 285, methyl trans-p-coumarate 286, methyl caffeate 287, ferulic acid 288, p-cresol 289, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde 290, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid 204, methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate 291, protocatechualdehyde 226, protocatechuic acid 189, methyl protocatechuate 292, vanillin 293, vanillic acid 225 [119]
24Impatiens niamniamensis Gilg (semi epiphytic)α-N,N,N-trimethyltryptophan betaine 294 [129]
25Convolvulaceace (parasite)
26Cassytha filiformis L.N-(3,4-dimethoxyphenethyl)-4,5-methylenedioxy-2-nitrophenylacetamide 295, actinodaphnine 296, cassythine 297, isoboldine 298, cassameridine 299, cassamedine 300, lysicamine 301, cathafiline 302, cathaformine 303, actinodaphnine 304, N-methylactinodaphnine 305, cathafiline 306, cathaformine 307, predicentrine 308, ocoteine 309, filiformine 310, (+)-diasyringaresinol 311, cathafiline 312, cathaformine 313, actinodaphnine 314, N-methylactinodaphnine 315, predicentrine 308, ocoteine 316, neolitsine 317, dicentrine 318, cassythine (cassyfiline) 319, actinodaphnine 320, 4-O-methylbalanophonin 321, cassyformin 322, isofiliformine 323, cassythic acid 324, cassythic acid 324, cassythine 325, neolitsine 326, dicentrine 318, 1,2-methylenedioxy-3,10,11-trimethoxyaporphine 327, (-)-O-methylflavinatine 328, (-)-salutaridine 329, isohamnetin-3-O-β-glucoside 330, isohamnetin-3-O-rutinoside 331 [134,354,376,377,378,379,380]
27Cuscuta australis R.Br.4-oic acid-7-oxo-kaurene-6α-O-β-d-glucoside 332, thymidine 333, caffeic acid 228, p-coumaric acid 334, caffeic-β-d-glucoside 335, kaempferol 153, quercetin 336, astragalin 337, hyperoside 338, astragalin 339, kaempferol 153, quercetin 336, β-sitosterol 11, β-sitosterol 3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside 340 [381,382,383]
28Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.coumarin 341, α-amyrin 342, β-amyrin 198, α-amyrin acetate 343, β-amyrin acetate 344, oleanolic acetate 345, oleanolic acid 127, stigmasterol 248, lupeol 247, stigmast-5-en-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside tetraacetate 346, stigmast-5-en-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 347, stigmast-5-en-3-yl-acetate 348, β-sitosterol 11, 3,5,7,3′-pentahydroxyflavanone (taxifolin) 349, 3,5,7,4′-tetrahydroxyflavanone (aromadendrin) 350 [143,384,385]
29Clusia grandiflora Splitg. (hemi epiphyte)friedelin 196, β-amyrin 198, β-sitosterol 11, lupeol 247, chamone I 351, chamone II 352 [149,386]
30Fagraea auriculata Jack. (semi epiphyte)di-O-methylcrenatin 353, potalioside B 354, adoxosidic acid 355, adoxoside 356, (þ)-pinoresinol 357, salicifoliol 358 [153]
Loranthaceae (parasite)
31Dendrophthoe falcata (L.f.)Ettingsh3β-acetoxy-1β-(2-hydroxy-2-propoxy)-11α-hydroxy-olean-12-ene 359, 3β-acetoxy-11α-ethoxy-1β-hydroxy-olean-12-ene 360, 3β-acetoxy-1β-hydroxy-11α-methoxy-olean-12-ene 361, 3β-acetoxy-1β,11α-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene 362, 3β-acetoxy-1β,11α-dihydroxy-urs-12-ene 363, 3β-acetoxy-urs-12-ene-11-one 364, 3β-acetoxy-lup-20(29)-ene 365, 30-nor-lup-3β-acetoxy-20-one 366, (20S)-3β-acetoxy-lupan-29-oic acid 367, kaempferol-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside 368, quercetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside 369, gallic acid 252 [387]
32Loranthus globosus Roxb(+)-catechin 168, 3,4-dimethoxycinnamyl alcohol 370, 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamylalcohol 371 [163]
33Macrosolen cochinchinensis (Lour.) Tiegh.quercetin 336, gallic acid 252, orientin 372, rutin 373, quercetin-3-O-apiosyl(1→2)-[rhamnosyl(1→6)]-glucoside 374, vicenin 375 [388]
34Scurrula atropurpurea (Blume) Danseroctadeca-8,10,12-triynoic acid 376, hexadec-8-ynoic acid 377, hexadec-10-ynoic acid 378, hexadeca-8,10-diynoic acid 379, hexadeca-6,8,10-triynoic acid 380, hexadeca-8,10,12-triynoic acid 381, (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid 382, (Z,Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid 383, (Z,Z,Z)-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoicacid 384, octadeca-8,10-diynoic acid 385, (Z)-octadec-12-ene-8,10-diynoic acid 386, octadeca-8,10,12-triynoic acid 376, theobromine 387, caffeine 388, quercitrin 389, rutin 373, icariside B2 390, aviculin 391, (+)-catechin 168, (-)-epicatechin 144, (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate 392, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate 393 [169,170]
35Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) Danserglycoside 4′-O-acetyl-quercitrin 394 [389]
36Scurrula parasitica L.(+)-catechin 168 [178]
37Ficus pumila L.(1S,4S,5R,6R,7S,10S)-1,4,6-trihydroxyeudesmane 6-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 39, (1S,4S,5S,6R,7R,10S)-1,4-dihydroxymaaliane 1-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 396, (23Z)-3β-acetoxycycloart-23-en-25-ol 39, (23Z)-3β-acetoxyeupha-7,23-dien-25-ol 39, (24RS)-3β-acetoxycycloart-25-en-24-ol 39, (24S)-24-hydroxystigmast-4-en-3-one 400, (24S)-stigmast-5-ene-3β,24-diol 401, 10α,11-dihydroxycadin-4-ene 11-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 402, 3β-acetoxy-(20R,22E,24RS)-20,24-dimethoxydammaran-22-en-25-ol 403, 3β-acetoxy-(20S,22E,24RS)-20,24-dimethoxydammaran-22-en-25-ol 404, 3β-acetoxy-20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27-octanordammaran-17β-ol 405, 3β-acetoxy-22,23,24,25,26,27-hexanordammaran-20-one 406, cycloartane-type triterpenoids 407, triterpenoid 408 [390,391,392]
38Anoectochilus formosanus Hayata(6R,9S)-9-hydroxy-megastigma-4,7-dien-3-one-9-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 409, (R)-(+)-3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid γ-lactone 410, 1-O-isopropyl-β-d-glucopyranoside 411, 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxymethyl)-5-hydroxymethylfuran 412, 3-(R)-3-β-d-glucopyranosyloxy-4-hydroxybutanoic acid 413, 3-(R)-3-β-d-glucopyranosyloxybutanolide (kinsenoside) 414, 4-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)benzyl alcohol 415, corchoionoside C 416 [393]
39Anoectochilus roxburghii (Blume) 24ξ-isopropenylcholesterol 417, 5-hydroxy-3′,4′,7-trimethoxyflavonol-3-O-β-D-rutinoside 418, 7-O-β-D-diglucoside 419, 8-C-β-hydroxybenzylquercetin 420, 8-p-hydroxybenzyl quercetin, 421, anoectosterol 422, campesterol 249, cirsilineol 423, daucosterol 134, ferulic acid 288, isorhamnetin 424, isorhamnetin-3 425, isorhamnetin-3, 4′-O-β-d-diglucoside 426, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside 427, isorhamnetin-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 428, isorhamnetin-7-O-β-d-diglucoside 429, kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 430, kaempferol-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 431, p-coumaric acid 334, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde 432, quercetin 336, quercetin 3′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 433, quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 434, quercetin 3-O-β-d-rutinoside 435, quercetin 7-O-β-glucoside 436, quercetin-7-O-β-D-[6′-O-(trans-feruloyl)]-glucopyranoside 437, sitosterol 438, stigmasterol 248, succinic acid 439, 3′,4′,7-trimethoxy-3,5-dihydroxyflavone 440, 3-methoxyl-p-hydroxybenzaldehyde 441, daucosterol 134, daucosterol 134, ferulic acid 288, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 442, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside 443, lanosterol 444, methy1 4-β-d-glucopyranosyl-butanoate 445, o-hydroxy phenol 446, oleanolic acid 127, palmitic acid 447, p-hydroxy benzaldehyde 448, p-hydroxy cinnamic acid 449, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde 432, rutin 373, sorghumol 3-O-E-p-coumarate 450, sorghumol 3-O-Z-p-coumarate 451, stearic acid 264, succinic acid 452, β-D-glucopyranosyl-(3R)-hydroxybutanolide 453, β-sitosterol 11 [394,395,396,397,398,399,400,401,402]
40Bulbophyllum kwangtungense Schltr.10,11-dihydro-2,7-dimethoxy-3,4-methylenedioxydibenzo[b,f]oxepine 454, 5-(2,3-dimethoxyphenethyl)-6-methylbenzo[d][1,3]dioxole 455, 7,8-dihydro-3-hydroxy-12,13-methylenedioxy-11-methoxyldibenz[b,f]oxepin 456, 7,8-dihydro-4-hydroxy-12,13-methylenedioxy-11-methoxyldibenz[b,f]oxepin 457, 7,8-dihydro-5-hydroxy-12,13-methylenedioxy-11-methoxyldibenz [b,f]oxepin, 458, cumulatin 459, densiflorol A 460, plicatol B 461 [219,403]
41Bulbophyllum odoratissimum (Sm.) Lindl. ex Wall.(+)-lyoniresinol-3a-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 462, 3,5-dimethoxyphenethyl alcohol 463, 3,7-dihydroxy-2,4,6-trimethoxyphenanthren 464, 3-hydroxyphenethyl 4-O-(6′- O-β-apiofuranosyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside 465, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic aldehyde 466, 3-methoxyphenethyl alc. 4-O-β-D-glucopynanoside 467, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde 468, 4-O-β-d-glucopynanoside 469, 7-hydroxy-2,3,4-trimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene 470, batatasin III 471, Bulbophyllanthrone 472, bulbophythrins A, B 473, 474, Coelonin 475, densiflorol B 476, ethyl orsellinat 477, gigantol 478, moscatin 479, p-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid 480, p-hydroxyphenylpropionic methyl ester 481, syringaldehyde 482, syringin 483, tristin 484, vanillic acid 225 [223,224,404,405,406,407]
42Bulbophyllum vaginatum (Lindl.) Rchb.f.(±)-syringaresinol 485, (2R*,3S*)-3-hydroxymethyl-9-methoxy-2-(4′-hydroxy-3′,5′-dimethoxyphenyl)-2,3,6,7-tetrahydrophenanthro [4,3-b]furan-5,11-diol 486, 2,4-dimethoxyphenanthrene-3,7-diol 487, 3,4,6-trimethenanthrene-2,7-diol 488, 3,4,6-trimethoxy-9,10- dihydrophenanthrene-2,7-diol 489, 3,4′,5-trihydroxy-3′-methoxybibenzyl (tristin) 490, 3,4′-dihydroxy-5,5′-dimethoxybibenzyl 491, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid 200, 3,4-dimethoxy-9,10- dihydrophenanthrene-2,7-diol (erianthridin) 492, 3,4-dimethoxyphenanthrene-2,7-diol (nudol) 493, 3,5-di- methoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene-2,7-diol (6- methoxycoelonin) 494, 3,5-dimeth- oxyphenanthrene-2,7-diol 495, 3′-dihydroxy-5-methoxybibenzyl 496, 4,4′,6,6′-tetramethoxy-[1,1′-biphenanthrene]-2,2′,3,3′,7,7′-hexol 497, 4,6-dimethoxy-9,10-di- hydrophenanthrene-2,3,7-triol 498, 4,6-dimethoxyphenanthrene-2,3,7-triol 499, 4-methoxy-9,10- dihydrophenanthrene-2,7-diol (coelonin) 500, 4-methoxyphenan- threne-2,7-diol (flavanthrinin) 501, 4-methoxyphenanthrene- 2,3,5-triol (fimbriol B) 502, 9,10- dihydrophenanthrenes 503, dihydroferulic acid 504, Friedelin 196, p-coumaric acid, 334 [36,408,409]
43Catasetum barbatum (Lindl.) Lindl.2,7-dihydroxy-3,4,8-trimethoxyphenanthrene 505 [225]
44Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw.aloifol I 506, aloifol II 507, 6-O-methylcoelonin 508, batatasin III 471, coelonin 475, gigantol, 478, 1-(4′-hydroxy-3′,5′-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(3″-hydroxyphenyl)ethane 509, 1-(4′-hydroxy-3′,5′-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(4″-hydroxy-3″-methoxyphenyl)ethane 510, 2,7-dihydroxy-4,6-dimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene 511, cymbinodin-A 512, cymbinodin B 513 [410,411,412]
45Cymbidium goeringii (Rchb.f.) Rchb.f.β-sitosterol 11, daucosterol 134, ergosterol 514, gigantol 478, cymbidine A 515 [229,230,413]
46Dendrobium amoenum Wall. ex Lindl.amotin 516, amoenin 517, amoenumin 518, amoenylin, isoamoenylin 519, 3,4′-dihydroxy-5-methoxybibenzyl, 520, 4,4′-dihydroxy-3,3′,5-trimethoxybibenzyl (moscatilin) 521 [414,415,416]
47Dendrobium chryseum Rolfearaxerol 522, coumarin 341, moscatilin 523, chrysotobibenzyl 524, chrysotoxin 525, gigantol 478, kaempferol 153, cis-melilotoside 526, defuscin 527, dendroflorin 528, dengibsin 529, dihydromelilotoside 530, naringenin 147, n-octacosyl ferulate 531, trans-melilotoside 532 [233,417]
48Dendrobium candidum Wall. Ex Lindl.(-)-loliolide 533, (-)-secoisolariciresinol 534, (-)syringaresinol 535, (+)-lyoniresinol-3a-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 462, (+)-syringaresinol-4-β-d-monoglucoside 536, (1′R)-1′-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxylphenyl) propan-1′-ol 4-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 537, (E)-p-Hydroxycinnamic acid 538, 2,4,7-trihydroxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene 539, 2-methoxyphenol-O-β-d-apiofuromosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranoside 540, 3,4-dihydroxy-5,4′-dimethoxybibenzyl 541, 3-O-methylgigantol 542, 4,4′-dihydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybibenzyl 543, 4′,5-dihydroxy-3,3′-dimethoxybibenzyl 544, 4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenylglucoside 545, 4′-dihydroxy-5-methoxybibenzyl 546, 5-hydroxymethyl-furaldehyde 547, Adenosine 548, Aduncin 549, cis-feruloyl-p-hydroxybenzenethylamine 550, coniferyl alcohol 551, daucosterol 134, defuscin 527, denbinobin, 552, dendrocandin A 553, dendrocandin B 554, dendrocandin C 555, dendrocandin D 556, dendrocandin E 557, dendrocandins F—I 558–561, dendromoniliside E 562, dendrophenol 563, dihydroresveratrol 564, gigantol 478, guanosine 565, hentriacontane 8, heptadecanoic acid 566, hexadecanoic acid 263, icariol A 2-4-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 567, khaephuouside 568, leonuriside A 569, naringenin 147, n-octacosyl ferulate 531, N-trans-feruloyl tyramine 570, n-triacontyl cis-p-coumarate 571, p-hydroxy-phenylpropionic acid 480, sucrose 232, syringaresinol 572, syringaresinol-4,4′-O-bis-β-d-glucoside 573, trans-cinnamoyl-p-hydroxybenzenethylamine 574, uridine 575, vanillyl alcohol 576, β-sitosterol 11 [237,238,239,418,419,420]
49Dendrobium chrysanthum Wall. ex Lindl.(2S)-N-cis-cinnamoyl-2-oxopropyrrolidine 577, (2S)-N-trans-cinnamoyl-2-oxopropyrrolidine 578, (þ)-lyoniresinol 579, 2,5-dihydroxy-4,9-dimethoxylphenanthrene 580, 4,4′-dihydroxy-3,3′,5-trimethoxybibenzyl 581, 7,70-bis-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-8,80-dihydroxymethyl-tetrahydrofuran-4-β-d-glucoside 582, chrysophanol 583, chrysotobibenzyl 524, chrysotobibenzyl 524, chrysotoxin 525, crepidatin 584, crepidatin 584, dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-4-β-d-glucoside 585, denchrysans A, B 586, 587, denchryside A 588, denchryside B 589, dendrochrysanene 590, dendroflorin 528, dengibsin 529, dengibsin 529, emodin 591, gigantol 478, moscatilin 523, moscatilin 523, moscatin 479, physcion 592, β-sitosterol 11 [226,417,421,422,423,424]
50Dendrobium fimbriatum Hook.2-hydroxyethyl caffeate 593, ayapin 594, chrysophanol 583, chrysotobibenzyl (I) 595, confusarin 596, crepidatin 584, defuscin 527, denhydroshizukanolide 597, fimbriatone 598, n-dotriacontanoic acid 599, n-octacosyl ferulate 531, n-triacontyl cis-p-coumarate 571, physcion 592, rhein 600, scopolin methyl ether 601, β-sitosterol 11 [425,426]
51Dendrobium loddigesii Rolfedendrophenol (4,4′-dihydroxy-3,3′,5-trimethoxybibenzyl) 563, loddigesiinols A-D 602-605, moscatilin 523, moscatilin diacetate 606, moscatin 479, shihunidine 607, shihunine 608, stilbenes 609 [250,251,252]
52Dendrobium moniliforme (L.) Sw. heptacosane 610, 3,4-dihydroxy-4′,5-dimethoxy bibenzyl 611, 3,4-dihydroxy-5,4′-dimethoxy bibenzyl 612, 4-methoxybenzaldehyde 613, a known alkaloid 6-hydroxynobiline 614, alkyl 4′-hydroxy-cis-cinnamates 615, alkyl ferulates 616, daucosterol 134, denbinobin 552, denbinobin, alkyl 4′-hydroxy-trans-cinnamates 617, dendromoniliside E 562, ethyl linolenates 618, heptatriaconsanoic acid 619, linoleic acid 620, methyl linolenates 621, moniliformin 622, moniline 623, n-nonacosane 624, n-octacosyl ferulate 531, n-triacontyl p-hydroxy-cis-cinnamate 625, octacosanyl hexadecanoate 626, phytosterols 627, stigmast-4-en-3-one 628, vanillin 293, α-dihydropicrotoxinin 629, β-sitosterol 11 [255,427,428,429,430,431]
53Dendrobium moschatum (Buch.-Ham) S.wmoscatin 479, moscatilin 523 [432,433]
54Dendrobium nobile Lindl.10,12-dihydroxypicrotoxane 630, 10β,13,14-trihydroxyalloaromadendrane 631, 3,4,8-trimethoxyphenanthrene-2,5-diol 632, 3,4′-dihydroxy-5,5′-dimethoxydihydrostilbene 633, 3-O-methylgigantol 542, 5,7-dimethoxyphenanthrene-2,6-diol 634, 6-hydroxy-dendrobine (dendramine) 635, 6-hydroxy-dendroxine 636, 6α,10,12-trihydroxypicrotoxane 637, 7,12-dihydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-11-isopropyl-6-methyl-9-oxatricyclo [,6]undecan-10-one-15-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 638, batatasin III 471, bullatantirol 639, chrysotobibenzyl 524, coelonin 475, crepidatin 584, denbinobin 552, dendrobane A 640, dendrobin A,7 chrysotoxine 641, dendrobine 642, dendrobiumane 643, dendrodensiflorol, 644, dendroflorin 528, dendronobilin A-I 645–653, dendronobilin J 654, dendronobiline A 655, dendronobilosides A, B 656, 657, dendronophenol A-B 658, 659, dendroside A 660, dendroside E-G 661–663, dendroxineo 664, ephemeranthol A 665, epheneranthol C 666, erianthridin 667, fimbriol-B 668, flavanthridin 669, gigantol 478, hircinol 670, lusianthridin 671, moscatilin 523, moscatilin 523, moscatin, 479, gigantol 478, nobilin D-E 672, 673, nobilone 674, nobilonine 675, stigmasterol 248, β-sitosterol 11, β-sitosterol glucoside 12 [38,261,262,263,264,267,433,434,435,436,437,438]
55Epidendrum strobiliferum Rchb.f.24-methylenecycloartanol 676, campesterol 249, pholidotin 677, stigmasterol 248, β-sitosterol 11 [272]
56Epidendrum rigidum Jacq.2,3-dimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenathrene-4,7-diol 678, 24-methyl-9,19-cyclolanostane-25-en-3β-ol 679, 3,4,9-trimethoxyphenanthrene-2,5-diol 680, apigenin 132, batatasin III 471, gigantol 478, isovitexin 681, stilbenoids I-IV 682–685, triterterpenoids 24,24-dimethyl-9,19-cyclolanostane-25-en-3β-ol 686, vitexin 283 [274]
57Mycaranthes pannea (Lindl.) S.C.Chen & J.J.WoodAcervatol 687, acervatone 688, flavanthridin 669, flavanthrinin 689 [276]
58Camaridium densum (Lindl.) M.A.Blanco2,5-dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxyphenanthrene 690, 2,5-dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxyphenanthrene 690, 9,10-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxyphenanthrene 691, 9,10-dihydro-2,7-dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxyphenanthrene 692, erianthridin 667, fimbriol-A 693, gymnopusin 694, nudol 695 [37,439]
59Nidema boothii (Lindl.) Schltr.1,5,7-trimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene-2,6-diol, 696, 1,5,7-trimethoxyphenanthrene-2,6-diol 697, 2,4-dimethoxyphenanthrene-3,7-diol 488, 9,19-cyclolanosta-24,24-dimethyl-25-en-3β-yl trans-p-hydroxycinnamate 698, aloifol II 507, batatasin III 471, ephemeranthol B 699, ephemeranthoquinone 700, gigantol 478, lusianthridin 671, nidemin 701, nidemone 702 [282,440]
60Pholidota articulata Lindl.2,7-dihydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyla 9, 10-dihydrophenanthrene flavidin 703, 2,7-dihydroxyll-methoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (coelonin) 704, 9, 10-dihydrophenanthrenes 705, coelogin 706, coeloginin 707, flavidin 708, flavidinin 709, oxoflavidinin 710 [441]
61Pholidota chinensis Lindl.(E)-2′,3,3′-trihydroxy-5-methoxystilbene (pholidotol C) 711, (Z)-3,3′-hydroxy-5-methoxystilbene (pholidotol D) 712, 2,4,7-trihydroxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene 539, 2,5-dimethoxy-3,4,3′,4′-bis(dimethylenedioxy)bibenzyl 713, 3,4′-dihydroxy-3′,5-dimethoxybibenzyl 714, 3,4-dihydroxy-4-methoxydihydrostilbene 715, 4,4′-dihydroxydiphenylmethane 716, 4,5-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene 717, 5,3′-dihydroxy-2,3-(methylenedioxy)bibenzyl 718, 9,10-dihydro-2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxyphenanthrene 719, batatasin III 471, blestrianol A 720, blestrin A 721, bulbophylol B 722, cannabidihydrophenanthrene 723, coelonin 475, coelonin 475, cyclopholidone 724, cyclopholidone 724, cyclopholidonol 725, cyclopholidonol 725, erianthridin 667, eulophiol 726, flavanthrin 727, flavanthrin 727, gymconpin C 728, hircinol 670, lusianthridin 671, lusianthridin, 671, phochinenins A – F 729–734, phochinenins G-L 735–740, pholidotols A-B 741, 742, 3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxydihydrostilbene 743, phoyunnanin D 744, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde 432, p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol 745, protocatechuic aldehyde 746, resveratrol 747, thunalbene 748, thunalbene 749, trans-3-3-dihydroxy-2,5-dimthoxystilbene 750, trans-3-hydroxy-2,3,5-trimthoxystilbene 751, β-daucosterol 752 [285,286,442,443,444,445]
62Scaphyglottis livida (Lindl.) Schltr.24,24,dimethyl-9,19-cyclolanosta-9(11),25-dien-3-one (cyclobalanone) 753, 3,4′-dihydroxy-3′,4,5-trimetoxybibenzyl 754, 3,4′-dihydroxy-3′,5-dimethoxybibenzyl 714, 3,7-dihydroxy-2,4,8-trimethoxyphenanthrene 755, 3,7-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethoxyphenanthrene 756, 5α-lanosta-24,24-dimethyl-9(11),25-dien-3β-ol 757, batatasin III 471, coelonin 475, gigantol 478, nidemin 701 [287,288,440]
63Papilionanthe teres (Roxb.) Schltr.eucomic acid 758, vandaterosides I-III 759–761 [295]
64Vanda tessellate (Roxb.) Hook. ex G. Don.Oxotessallatin 762 [446]
65Peperomia galioides Kunth(+)-epi-α-bisabolol 763, galopiperone 764, grifolic acid 765, grifolin 766, hydropiperone 767, piperogalin 768, piperogalone 769 [447,448,449]
66Piper retrofractum Vahl28-methylnonacos-27-en-1-oic acid 770, 3-methyl-5-decanoylpyridine 771, caffeic acid 228, di-methyl 3,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2-cyclobutanedicarboxylate 772, esculetin 773, methyl piperate 774, N-isobutyleicosa-2,4-dienamide 775, p-coumaric acid 334, pipereicosalidine 776, piperine 777, piperine 777, pipernonaline 778, piperoctadecalidine 779, retrofractamide-D 780, retrofractamides A, C 781, 782, uracil 783, uridine 575, vitexin 283, vitexin 2′-O-β-glucopyranoside 784, β-d-glucopyranoside 266, β-sitosterol 11 [301,306,450,451,452,453]
67Hydnophytum formicarum Jack4-aminophenyl acetate 785, 7,3′,5′-trihydroxyflavone 786, butein 787, butin 788, Isoliquiritigenin 789, protocatechualdehyde 226, stigmast-4-en-3-one 628, stigmasterol 248, β-sitosterol 11 [313,361]
68Viscum articulatum Burm.f.(2S)-5,3,4-trihydroxyflavanone 7-O-β-d-glucoside 790, (2S)-homoeriodictyol 791, (2S)-homoeriodictyol 7-O-β-d-glucoside 792, (2S)-naringenin 7-O-β-d-glucoside 793, (2S)-pinocembrin 7-O-[cinnamoyl(1→5)-β-d-apiosyl(1→2)]-β-d-glucoside 794, (2S)-pinocembrin 7-O-[β-d-apiosyl(1→2)]-β-d-glucoside (1) 795, (2S)-pinocembrin 7-O-β-d-glucoside 796, (4′-hydroxy-2′,3′,6′,3′′-tetramethoxy-1,3-diphenylpropane)-4′′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 797, 1-O-benzyl-[5-O-benzoyl-β-Dapiofuranosyl(1→2)]-β-d-glucopyranoside 798, 2-deoxy-epi-inositol 799, 2-phenylethanol 800, 4-β-d-glucosyloxy-3-hydroxy-benzoic acid 801, 4′-hydroxy-7,3′-dimethoxyflavan-5-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 802, 4-O-cinnamoyl quinic acid 803, 5,3′,4′-trihydroxyflavanone-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 804, 5,4′-dihydroxyflavanone-7-O-β-d-lucopyranoside 805, 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 806, botulin 807, betulin 808, betulinic acid 809, cinnamic acid methyl ester 810, diphenylpropane glycoside 811, eriodictyol 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 812, homoeriodictyol 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 813, homoeriodictyol-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 814, homoeriodictyol-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside-4′-O-β-d-(5′′′-cinnamoyl)apiofuranoside 815, homoeriodictyol-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside-4′-O-β-d-apiofuranoside 816, lupenyl acetate 817, lupeol 247, lupeol acetate 818, lupeol palmitate 819, lupeol stearate 820, lycorin 821, methylparaben 822, naringenin 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 823, Oleanolic acid 127, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde 432, p-hydroxy-benzoic acid 824, pinocembrin 825, pinocembrin 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 826, pinocembrin-7-O-[cinnamoyl (1→5)-β-d-apiofuranosyl (1→2)]-β-d-glucopyranoside 827, pinocembrin-7-O-β-d-apio furanosyl(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranoside 828, pinocembrin-7-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1→5)-β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranoside 829, protocatechuic acid 189, vanillin 293, visartisides A-C 830, 831, 832, visartisides D-F (4–6) 833, 834, 835, viscumitol 836, α-amyrin 342, β-amyrin acetate 837, β-sitosterol 11 [319,320,321,322,323,454,455,456]
69Viscum ovalifolium DC3-O-α-l-arabinopyranoyl-hederagenin-28-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside 838, gypsogenic acid 839, hederagenin 840, hederagenin-3-O-α-l-arabinopyranoside 841, hederagenin-3-O-α-l-arabinopyranoyl-(2→1)-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 842, lupeol acetate 818, lupeol palmitate 819, oleanolic acid 127, lupeol stearate 820, β-amyrin 198, β-amyrin acetate 344 [457,458]

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Nugraha, A.S.; Triatmoko, B.; Wangchuk, P.; Keller, P.A. Vascular Epiphytic Medicinal Plants as Sources of Therapeutic Agents: Their Ethnopharmacological Uses, Chemical Composition, and Biological Activities. Biomolecules 2020, 10, 181.

AMA Style

Nugraha AS, Triatmoko B, Wangchuk P, Keller PA. Vascular Epiphytic Medicinal Plants as Sources of Therapeutic Agents: Their Ethnopharmacological Uses, Chemical Composition, and Biological Activities. Biomolecules. 2020; 10(2):181.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nugraha, Ari Satia, Bawon Triatmoko, Phurpa Wangchuk, and Paul A. Keller. 2020. "Vascular Epiphytic Medicinal Plants as Sources of Therapeutic Agents: Their Ethnopharmacological Uses, Chemical Composition, and Biological Activities" Biomolecules 10, no. 2: 181.

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