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Article

Role of Ferrous Sulfate (FeSO4) in Resistance to Cadmium Stress in Two Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes

1
Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
2
Department of Soil Science, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam 70060, Pakistan
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College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
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Department of Botany, Division of Science and Technology, University of Education Lahore, Punjab 54770, Pakistan
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College of Science, Shantou University, Shantou 515063, China
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Department of Earth Sciences, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100, Pakistan
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Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527, Egypt
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Department of Botany, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
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Department of Agronomy, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan
10
Department of Technical Services, Fatima Agri Sales and Services, Multan 60800, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Biomolecules 2020, 10(12), 1693; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10121693
Received: 3 December 2020 / Revised: 14 December 2020 / Accepted: 15 December 2020 / Published: 18 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Natural and Bio-inspired Molecules)
The impact of heavy metal, i.e., cadmium (Cd), on the growth, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange characteristics, oxidative stress biomarkers, and antioxidants machinery (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants), ions uptake, organic acids exudation, and ultra-structure of membranous bounded organelles of two rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes (Shan 63 and Lu 9803) were investigated with and without the exogenous application of ferrous sulfate (FeSO4). Two O. sativa genotypes were grown under different levels of CdCl2 [0 (no Cd), 50 and 100 µM] and then treated with exogenously supplemented ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) [0 (no Fe), 50 and 100 µM] for 21 days. The results revealed that Cd stress significantly (p < 0.05) affected plant growth and biomass, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange characteristics, affected antioxidant machinery, sugar contents, and ions uptake/accumulation, and destroy the ultra-structure of many membranous bounded organelles. The findings also showed that Cd toxicity induces oxidative stress biomarkers, i.e., malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) initiation, and electrolyte leakage (%), which was also manifested by increasing the enzymatic antioxidants, i.e., superoxidase dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds (phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, and anthocyanin) and organic acids exudation pattern in both O. sativa genotypes. At the same time, the results also elucidated that the O. sativa genotypes Lu 9803 are more tolerant to Cd stress than Shan 63. Although, results also illustrated that the exogenous application of ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) also decreased Cd toxicity in both O. sativa genotypes by increasing antioxidant capacity and thus improved the plant growth and biomass, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange characteristics, and decrease oxidative stress in the roots and shoots of O. sativa genotypes. Here, we conclude that the exogenous supplementation of FeSO4 under short-term exposure of Cd stress significantly improved plant growth and biomass, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange characteristics, regulate antioxidant defense system, and essential nutrients uptake and maintained the ultra-structure of membranous bounded organelles in O. sativa genotypes. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidants; defense mechanism; heavy metals; iron; organic acids exudation antioxidants; defense mechanism; heavy metals; iron; organic acids exudation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Afzal, J.; Saleem, M.H.; Batool, F.; Elyamine, A.M.; Rana, M.S.; Shaheen, A.; El-Esawi, M.A.; Tariq Javed, M.; Ali, Q.; Arslan Ashraf, M.; Hussain, G.S.; Hu, C. Role of Ferrous Sulfate (FeSO4) in Resistance to Cadmium Stress in Two Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes. Biomolecules 2020, 10, 1693. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10121693

AMA Style

Afzal J, Saleem MH, Batool F, Elyamine AM, Rana MS, Shaheen A, El-Esawi MA, Tariq Javed M, Ali Q, Arslan Ashraf M, Hussain GS, Hu C. Role of Ferrous Sulfate (FeSO4) in Resistance to Cadmium Stress in Two Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes. Biomolecules. 2020; 10(12):1693. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10121693

Chicago/Turabian Style

Afzal, Javaria, Muhammad H. Saleem, Fatima Batool, Ali M. Elyamine, Muhammad S. Rana, Asma Shaheen, Mohamed A. El-Esawi, Muhammad Tariq Javed, Qasim Ali, Muhammad Arslan Ashraf, Ghulam S. Hussain, and Chengxiao Hu. 2020. "Role of Ferrous Sulfate (FeSO4) in Resistance to Cadmium Stress in Two Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes" Biomolecules 10, no. 12: 1693. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10121693

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