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Metabolites 2018, 8(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8040058

Identifying Antibacterial Compounds in Black Walnuts (Juglans nigra) Using a Metabolomics Approach

1
The Center for Agroforestry, School of Natural Resources, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
2
Department of Food Technology, Can Tho University, Can Tho 90000, Vietnam
3
Metabolomics Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
4
Department of Biochemistry, Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
5
U. S. Northern Research Station, USDA-Forest Service, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
6
Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 September 2018 / Revised: 22 September 2018 / Accepted: 28 September 2018 / Published: 29 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics and Its Applications)
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Abstract

Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is one of the most economically valuable hardwood species and a high value tree for edible nut production in the United States. Although consumption of black walnut has been linked to multiple health-promoting effects (e.g., antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory), the bioactive compounds have not been systematically characterized. In addition, the associations between different black walnut cultivars and their health-promoting compounds have not been well established. In this study, the kernels of twenty-two black walnut cultivars selected for nut production by the University of Missouri Center for Agroforestry (Columbia, MO, USA) were evaluated for their antibacterial activities using agar-well diffusion assay. Among the selected cultivars, four black walnut cultivars (i.e., Mystry, Surprise, D.34, and A.36) exhibited antibacterial activity against a Gram-positive bacterium (Staphylococcus aureus), whereas other cultivars showed no effect on the inhibition of this bacterium. The antibacterial compounds showing the strongest activity were isolated with bioassay-guided purification and identified using a metabolomics approach. Six antibacterial bioactive compounds responsible for antimicrobial activity were successfully identified. Glansreginin A, azelaic acid, quercetin, and eriodictyol-7-O-glucoside are novel antibacterial compounds identified in the kernels of black walnuts. The metabolomics approach provides a simple and cost-effective tool for bioactive compound identification. View Full-Text
Keywords: black walnut; Juglans nigra; antibacterial; metabolomics approach; compound identification black walnut; Juglans nigra; antibacterial; metabolomics approach; compound identification
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Ho, K.-V.; Lei, Z.; Sumner, L.W.; Coggeshall, M.V.; Hsieh, H.-Y.; Stewart, G.C.; Lin, C.-H. Identifying Antibacterial Compounds in Black Walnuts (Juglans nigra) Using a Metabolomics Approach. Metabolites 2018, 8, 58.

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