Next Article in Journal
Plasma Lipid Profiles Change with Increasing Numbers of Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries in Rats
Previous Article in Journal
Probing Anti-Leukemic Metabolites from Marine-Derived Streptomyces sp. LY1209
Previous Article in Special Issue
Distribution and Associated Factors of Hepatic Iron—A Population-Based Imaging Study
 
 
Review

Hepatic Positron Emission Tomography: Applications in Metabolism, Haemodynamics and Cancer

1
Turku PET Centre, Turku University Hospital, 20520 Turku, Finland
2
Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
3
Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council (CNR), 56124 Pisa, Italy
4
Department of Endocrinology, Turku University Hospital, 20520 Turku, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jeanine J. Prompers and Martin Krššák
Metabolites 2022, 12(4), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12040321
Received: 1 March 2022 / Revised: 29 March 2022 / Accepted: 31 March 2022 / Published: 2 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Application of Imaging Technology in Studying Liver Metabolism)
Evaluating in vivo the metabolic rates of the human liver has been a challenge due to its unique perfusion system. Positron emission tomography (PET) represents the current gold standard for assessing non-invasively tissue metabolic rates in vivo. Here, we review the existing literature on the assessment of hepatic metabolism, haemodynamics and cancer with PET. The tracer mainly used in metabolic studies has been [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG). Its application not only enables the evaluation of hepatic glucose uptake in a variety of metabolic conditions and interventions, but based on the kinetics of 18F-FDG, endogenous glucose production can also be assessed. 14(R,S)-[18F]fluoro-6-thia-Heptadecanoic acid (18F-FTHA), 11C-Palmitate and 11C-Acetate have also been applied for the assessment of hepatic fatty acid uptake rates (18F-FTHA and 11C-Palmitate) and blood flow and oxidation (11C-Acetate). Oxygen-15 labelled water (15O-H2O) has been used for the quantification of hepatic perfusion. 18F-FDG is also the most common tracer used for hepatic cancer diagnostics, whereas 11C-Acetate has also shown some promising applications in imaging liver malignancies. The modelling approaches used to analyse PET data and also the challenges in utilizing PET in the assessment of hepatic metabolism are presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: positron emission tomography; fluorodeoxyglucose; liver metabolism positron emission tomography; fluorodeoxyglucose; liver metabolism
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Honka, M.-J.; Rebelos, E.; Malaspina, S.; Nuutila, P. Hepatic Positron Emission Tomography: Applications in Metabolism, Haemodynamics and Cancer. Metabolites 2022, 12, 321. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12040321

AMA Style

Honka M-J, Rebelos E, Malaspina S, Nuutila P. Hepatic Positron Emission Tomography: Applications in Metabolism, Haemodynamics and Cancer. Metabolites. 2022; 12(4):321. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12040321

Chicago/Turabian Style

Honka, Miikka-Juhani, Eleni Rebelos, Simona Malaspina, and Pirjo Nuutila. 2022. "Hepatic Positron Emission Tomography: Applications in Metabolism, Haemodynamics and Cancer" Metabolites 12, no. 4: 321. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12040321

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop