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Metabolomic Characterization of Commercial, Old, and Red-Fleshed Apple Varieties

Laimburg Research Centre, Laimburg 6, Pfatten (Vadena), 39040 Auer, Italy
Department of Cellular, Computational and Integrative Biology (CIBIO), University of Trento, Via Sommarive 9, Povo, 38123 Trento, Italy
Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, Via E. Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all’Adige, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: David Gagneul and Romain Larbat
Metabolites 2021, 11(6), 378;
Received: 14 May 2021 / Revised: 4 June 2021 / Accepted: 7 June 2021 / Published: 11 June 2021
In this study, a metabolomic investigation was presented to correlate single polyphenolic compounds in apple pulp with quality characteristics such as antioxidant activity and content of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins in apple skin. Since the concentration of these compounds is influenced by environmental factors, the twenty-two apple cultivars originate from the same site. The polyphenolic compounds were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS). The antioxidant activity, phenolic content, and anthocyanins were evaluated on the sunny and the shady sides of apple skin by spectrometric assays. In old apple varieties, the measured parameters were higher than in the commercial and red-fleshed varieties. By contrast, the profile of flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins was variable amongst commercial and red-fleshed varieties. The partial least square (PLS) method was applied to investigate the association between the skin proprieties and the metabolic profile of the pulp. The highest coefficients of determination in prediction (Q2) were obtained for compounds quantified in old cultivars. These results provided information to define the old apple varieties as a reliable group based on the pathway of the antioxidant compounds and anthocyanins content. Our results show the possibility to find cultivars with promising health features based on their content of polyphenols suitable for commercialization or breeding. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolomics; antioxidant activity; polyphenols; mass spectrometry metabolomics; antioxidant activity; polyphenols; mass spectrometry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ceci, A.T.; Bassi, M.; Guerra, W.; Oberhuber, M.; Robatscher, P.; Mattivi, F.; Franceschi, P. Metabolomic Characterization of Commercial, Old, and Red-Fleshed Apple Varieties. Metabolites 2021, 11, 378.

AMA Style

Ceci AT, Bassi M, Guerra W, Oberhuber M, Robatscher P, Mattivi F, Franceschi P. Metabolomic Characterization of Commercial, Old, and Red-Fleshed Apple Varieties. Metabolites. 2021; 11(6):378.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ceci, Adriana T., Michele Bassi, Walter Guerra, Michael Oberhuber, Peter Robatscher, Fulvio Mattivi, and Pietro Franceschi. 2021. "Metabolomic Characterization of Commercial, Old, and Red-Fleshed Apple Varieties" Metabolites 11, no. 6: 378.

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