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Open AccessArticle

Serum Zinc, Copper, and Other Biometals Are Associated with COVID-19 Severity Markers

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World-Class Research Center “Digital Biodesign and Personalized Healthcare”, IM Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), 119435 Moscow, Russia
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Laboratory of Medical Elementology, KG Razumovsky Moscow State University of Technologies and Management, 109004 Moscow, Russia
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Chemistry Department, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia
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Department of Polymers and Composites, N.N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, 119991 Moscow, Russia
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Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
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Research Department, Innlandet Hospital Trust, 2380 Brumunddal, Norway
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Institute of Bioelementology, Orenburg State University, 460018 Orenburg, Russia
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l’Institut des Sciences Analytiques et de Physico-chimie pour l’Environnement et les Matériaux, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour, E2S, CNRS, 64000 Pau, France
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Laboratory of Toxicology, Medical School, University of Crete, Voutes, 70013 Heraklion, Crete, Greece
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Laboratory of Ecobiomonitoring and Quality Control, Yaroslavl State University, 150003 Yaroslavl, Russia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter Meikle
Metabolites 2021, 11(4), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11040244
Received: 23 February 2021 / Revised: 29 March 2021 / Accepted: 7 April 2021 / Published: 15 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Endocrinology and Clinical Metabolic Research)
The objective of the present study was to evaluate of serum metal levels in COVID-19 patients with different disease severity, and to investigate the independent association between serum metal profile and markers of lung damage. The cohort of COVID-19 patients consisted of groups of subjects with mild, moderate, and severe illness, 50 examinees each. Forty-four healthy subjects of the respective age were involved in the current study as the control group. Serum metal levels were evaluated using inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. Examination of COVID-19 patients demonstrated that heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, C-reactive protein levels, as well as lung damage increased significantly with COVID-19 severity, whereas SpO2 decreased gradually. Increasing COVID-19 severity was also associated with a significant gradual decrease in serum Ca, Fe, Se, Zn levels as compared to controls, whereas serum Cu and especially Cu/Zn ratio were elevated. No significant group differences in serum Mg and Mn levels were observed. Serum Ca, Fe, Se, Zn correlated positively with SpO2, being inversely associated with fever, lung damage, and C-reactive protein concentrations. Opposite correlations were observed for Cu and Cu/Zn ratio. In regression models, serum Se levels were inversely associated with lung damage independently of other markers of disease severity, anthropometric, biochemical, and hemostatic parameters. Cu/Zn ratio was also considered as a significant predictor of lower SpO2 in adjusted regression models. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that metal metabolism significantly interferes with COVID-19 pathogenesis, although the causal relations as well as precise mechanisms are yet to be characterized. View Full-Text
Keywords: novel coronavirus infection; lung damage; trace elements; selenium; iron novel coronavirus infection; lung damage; trace elements; selenium; iron
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MDPI and ACS Style

Skalny, A.V.; Timashev, P.S.; Aschner, M.; Aaseth, J.; Chernova, L.N.; Belyaev, V.E.; Grabeklis, A.R.; Notova, S.V.; Lobinski, R.; Tsatsakis, A.; Svistunov, A.A.; Fomin, V.V.; Tinkov, A.A.; Glybochko, P.V. Serum Zinc, Copper, and Other Biometals Are Associated with COVID-19 Severity Markers. Metabolites 2021, 11, 244. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11040244

AMA Style

Skalny AV, Timashev PS, Aschner M, Aaseth J, Chernova LN, Belyaev VE, Grabeklis AR, Notova SV, Lobinski R, Tsatsakis A, Svistunov AA, Fomin VV, Tinkov AA, Glybochko PV. Serum Zinc, Copper, and Other Biometals Are Associated with COVID-19 Severity Markers. Metabolites. 2021; 11(4):244. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11040244

Chicago/Turabian Style

Skalny, Anatoly V.; Timashev, Peter S.; Aschner, Michael; Aaseth, Jan; Chernova, Lyubov N.; Belyaev, Vladimir E.; Grabeklis, Andrey R.; Notova, Svetlana V.; Lobinski, Ryszard; Tsatsakis, Aristides; Svistunov, Andrey A.; Fomin, Victor V.; Tinkov, Alexey A.; Glybochko, Peter V. 2021. "Serum Zinc, Copper, and Other Biometals Are Associated with COVID-19 Severity Markers" Metabolites 11, no. 4: 244. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11040244

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