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Review

Effect of Exercise on Brain Health: The Potential Role of Lactate as a Myokine

1
Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Osaka 525-8577, Japan
2
Graduate School of Informatics and Engineering, The University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo 182-8585, Japan
3
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Toyo University, Saitama 350-8585, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Norbert Nemeth
Metabolites 2021, 11(12), 813; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11120813
Received: 29 October 2021 / Revised: 26 November 2021 / Accepted: 27 November 2021 / Published: 29 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hemorheology and Metabolism)
It has been well established in epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials that habitual exercise is beneficial for brain health, such as cognition and mental health. Generally, it may be reasonable to say that the physiological benefits of acute exercise can prevent brain disorders in late life if such exercise is habitually/chronically conducted. However, the mechanisms of improvement in brain function via chronic exercise remain incompletely understood because such mechanisms are assumed to be multifactorial, such as the adaptation of repeated acute exercise. This review postulates that cerebral metabolism may be an important physiological factor that determines brain function. Among metabolites, the provision of lactate to meet elevated neural activity and regulate the cerebrovascular system and redox states in response to exercise may be responsible for exercise-enhanced brain health. Here, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the influence of exercise on brain health, particularly cognitive performance, with the underlying mechanisms by means of lactate. Regarding the influence of chronic exercise on brain function, the relevance of exercise intensity and modality, particularly high-intensity interval exercise, is acknowledged to induce “metabolic myokine” (i.e., lactate) for brain health. View Full-Text
Keywords: executive function; mental health; brain-derived neurotrophic factor; insulin-like growth factor-1; vascular endothelial growth factor; neurogenesis; angiogenesis; cerebral blood flow; nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate executive function; mental health; brain-derived neurotrophic factor; insulin-like growth factor-1; vascular endothelial growth factor; neurogenesis; angiogenesis; cerebral blood flow; nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hashimoto, T.; Tsukamoto, H.; Ando, S.; Ogoh, S. Effect of Exercise on Brain Health: The Potential Role of Lactate as a Myokine. Metabolites 2021, 11, 813. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11120813

AMA Style

Hashimoto T, Tsukamoto H, Ando S, Ogoh S. Effect of Exercise on Brain Health: The Potential Role of Lactate as a Myokine. Metabolites. 2021; 11(12):813. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11120813

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hashimoto, Takeshi, Hayato Tsukamoto, Soichi Ando, and Shigehiko Ogoh. 2021. "Effect of Exercise on Brain Health: The Potential Role of Lactate as a Myokine" Metabolites 11, no. 12: 813. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11120813

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