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Open AccessArticle

Congestion-Aware Geocast Routing in Vehicular Delay-Tolerant Networks

1
INESC-ID, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1000-029 Lisboa, Portugal
2
INESC-ID/INOV, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1000-029 Lisboa, Portugal
3
LASIGE, Departamento de Informática, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Electronics 2020, 9(3), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9030477
Received: 19 February 2020 / Revised: 10 March 2020 / Accepted: 11 March 2020 / Published: 13 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Delay Tolerant Networks and Applications)
Vehicular Delay-Tolerant Networks (VDTNs) are networks of vehicles that communicate wirelessly, where there are no permanent end-to-end connections. VDTNs have a highly variable topology, with frequent partitions, and possibly low node density. Thus, delay-tolerant routing adopts a store-carry-and-forward message transfer paradigm, where messages have a useful Time-To-Live (TTL) and are stored until a good contact opportunity arises. Multiple message replicas can be generated to improve delivery probability at the cost of increasing network congestion. In this paper, we propose the V-GRADIENT geocast routing protocol that monitors node density, buffer occupancy, and interest in geocast groups, to adapt the forwarding techniques used dynamically, to disseminate messages within the geographic region of interest. Simulation results show that the V-GRADIENT is capable of controlling network congestion and efficiently delivering messages resulting in better delivery ratios, lower latencies, and a small increase in overhead when compared with existing protocols. View Full-Text
Keywords: wireless communications; geocast routing; vehicular delay-tolerant networks wireless communications; geocast routing; vehicular delay-tolerant networks
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Nascimento, H.; Pereira, P.R.; Magaia, N. Congestion-Aware Geocast Routing in Vehicular Delay-Tolerant Networks. Electronics 2020, 9, 477.

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