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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

An Experimental Investigation on the Impact of Duplexing and Beamforming Techniques in Field Measurements of 5G Signals

1
Department of Rome, ARPA Lazio, Via G. Saredo 52, 00173 Rome, Italy
2
DIEI (Dipartimento di Ingegeria Elettrica e dell’Informazione “Maurizio Scarano”), University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, via G. Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, Italy
3
ICEmB (Inter-University National Research Center on Interactions Between Electromagnetic Fields and Biosystems), Via All’Opera Pia, 11 A, 16145 Genova GE, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Electronics 2020, 9(2), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9020223
Received: 23 December 2019 / Revised: 17 January 2020 / Accepted: 20 January 2020 / Published: 29 January 2020
The fifth generation mobile network introduces dramatic improvements with respect to the previous technologies. Features such as variable numerology, bandwidth parts, massive Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) and Time Division Duplex (TDD) will extend the capabilities of the 5G wireless systems and, at the same time, will influence the measurement techniques used to assess the compliance with general public electromagnetic field exposure limits. In this study, a heterogeneous set of 5G signals is investigated with the aim of establishing an effective measurement technique suitable for the new technology. Following an experimental approach based on both modulation and zero span analysis, some important characteristics of the 5G system are highlighted and extensively discussed, and experimental procedures for estimating factors associated to TDD (F T D C factor) and beam sweeping (R factor), to be used in the extrapolation formulas, are presented. The results of this study represent a starting point for future investigations on effective methods to estimate both the instant maximum power and the total power transmitted during a 5G radio frame. View Full-Text
Keywords: 5G NR; TDD; beam sweeping; SS-Block; massive MIMO; EMF exposure 5G NR; TDD; beam sweeping; SS-Block; massive MIMO; EMF exposure
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Franci, D.; Coltellacci, S.; Grillo, E.; Pavoncello, S.; Aureli, T.; Cintoli, R.; Migliore, M.D. An Experimental Investigation on the Impact of Duplexing and Beamforming Techniques in Field Measurements of 5G Signals. Electronics 2020, 9, 223.

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