- freely available
Electronics 2020, 9(1), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9010149
2.1. Data Selection from ISI Web of Knowledge Database
2.2. Commercial Smart Furniture and ICT Solutions Analysis Using Web Sources and Company Materials
2.3. Patent Analysis
3.1. Literature Review
3.2. Selected Commercial Smart Furniture and ICT Solutions
- Sensors—which sensors are used within the Smart solution
- Active effect—what is the output of the solution to the (Smart) environment
- Remote—if the solution provides remote access
- Mobile—if the solution can control or monitor via a mobile device
- User—what experience level is needed to use the solution
- Smart—can the solution be characterized as Smart?
- Potential—is there potential to attach the solution to the Smart environment as it is?
- Price (€)—value of the solution
3.3. Patent Applications of Smart Furniture Solutions
3.3.1. Review of Selected Smart Furniture Patents
3.3.2. Summary of Selected Smart Furniture Patents
3.4. Technological Achievements of the Smart Entities Embedded in the Smart Furniture
- Decoupling Smart Features from Smart Objects: Current practices typically connect a physical object with a specific scenario, thus they are tightly coupled with the application scenario which limits the reusability of the smart objects. Developers and designers need to tend that Smart objects should be designed in a generic manner, such that the Smart features are independent of the physical object.
- Developing General Purpose Applications Independent of Smart Objects: Smart solutions need to be designed as much independent and decoupled as possible. Applications for Smart objects need to be designed in a generic way so that the same application could run on multiple Smart objects, and one Smart object could host multiple applications.
- Involving End Users in the Deployment, Configuration and Maintenance Processes: There is still a research gap between research projects and commercial Smart solutions. Focus on the end user as the final customer is still a challenge. The need to design Smart objects systems in a more human-centric way, and also involving end users in the process, leads to higher acceptability and a greater feeling of having control due to their active participations [109,117].
Smart Furniture-Related Costs and Literature Gaps
5. Future Challenges
- verifying the acceptance of a virtual assistant by people who are not very experienced in technology, and ensure that the user is friendly, so that the solution is not only technologically functional, but acceptable by the target group, which can suffer from many limitations (reduced haptic sensitivity, decreased vision, hearing, mobility),
- voice user interfaces can benefit the senior population, as they are more intuitive than touch screens, which can be challenging for people with limited dexterity,
- any future IoT initiatives will need to be implemented in line with a strategy for transforming the fundamental culture and policy,
- one of the greatest barriers to IoT deployment remains to ensure adequate security. Dangerous components, widespread malware and any low-efficiency attempts to take traditional security measures on IoT networks pose huge challenges for all potential IoT users,
- and finally, for many consumers out there, they still need to be convinced that they absolutely need these things, and should continue to digitize their lives, homes and workplaces.
Conflicts of Interest
Availability of Data and Materials
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|Source Titles||Record Count||% of 439|
|Journal of ambient intelligence and smart environments||19||4.33|
|Personal and ubiquitous computing||12||2.73|
|Journal of ambient intelligence and humanized computing||9||2.05|
|Indoor and built environment||8||1.82|
|Ambient intelligence and smart environments||7||1.60|
|Handbook of ambient assisted living technology for healthcare rehabilitation and well-being||6||1.37|
|Journal of medical systems||6||1.37|
|IEEE communications magazine||5||1.14|
|Field: Research Areas||Record Count||% of 439|
|Health care sciences services||35||7.97|
|Mathematical computational biology||15||3.42|
|Field: Countries/Regions||Record Count||% of 439|
|Name||Focus||Sensors||Active Effect||Battery||Remote||Mobile||Communication Protocol||User||Smart||Potential||Price (€)|
|Hyundai Livart ||Living room, kitchen||-||Air cleaner by UV LED Violeds||220 V||Yes||Yes||-||Basic||No||No||-|
|IKEA ||Range of household smart items||-||Lightning control, wireless charging, wireless speakers||2x AAA/230 V||Yes||Yes||2400 MHz~2483.5 MHz||Basic||No||No||Varying prices (e.g., wireless electric blind sells for €162)|
|Smart Sofa ||Households||Posture monitoring||Furniture shape change||230 V||Yes||Yes||IoT/WiFI||Basic||No||No||800–12,000|
|Smart BED [10,11]||Households||Heart rate, temperature, sleep monitoring, breath rate||Foot warming, bed shape change, lightning control||-||Yes||Yes||-||Basic||No/passive functions||No||1500–4000|
|FurniQi Smart Table ||Households||-||Charging mobile phones||230 V||No||No||-||Ignorant||No||No||180|
|LG Clothing Steamer ||Households||-||Cleaning clothing (E. coli and S. epidermidis), steam, drying,||120 V/1500 W||Yes||Yes||WiFi, SmartThinQ Technology||Basic||No||No||1800|
|Elflow Cooling Mist ||SoHo||Temperature, humidity||Mist generator||-||-||Yes||-||Basic||No||No||-|
|Fever scout ||Households||Temperature, humidity, pressure||No||Chargeable||Yes||Yes||BLE (max range 13 ft)||Basic||Yes||Yes||60|
|Google Nest Yale Smart lock ||Households||-||Lock, voice recognition||4xAA LiPol||Yes||Yes||Weave AES 128-bit and Bluetooth||Basic||Yes||Yes||250|
|Panasonic Mirror ||Households||Skin condition, image processing,||Recommendations on what product use||-||Yes||Yes||-||Basic||Yes||Yes||950|
|Somabar robot bartender ||SoHo||Flowmeter, temp||Drink maker||230 V||No||No||WiFi||Basic||No||No||390|
|Samsung Family Hub 3.0 Smart Fridge ||Households||Camera, Thermostat, Bixby||Display schedule, shopping list, music syncing||230 V||Yes||Yes||WiFi/Bluetooth||Basic/Advanced||Yes||Yes||2100–2200|
|Smarty Pans [37,39]||Households||Temperature, weight||Diet monitoring||Magnetic charging||Yes||Yes||BLE 5.0||Basic/Advanced||No||No||200|
|Smart Chair ||SoHo||Pressure, pressure distribution||Movement in the seated position||5500 mAh/36 h||Yes||No||2.4 GHz ZigBee||Scientist||No||Yes||Medical: 1800–2700 Posture: 1400|
|Herman Miller Live OS Smart table ||SoHo||-||Height change||-||Yes||Yes||Live OS—ANT wireless mesh network||Basic||No||No||1450|
|Infurma Actiu Smart chair ||SoHo||Posture, air quality, temperature, humidity, lighting and noise levels.||Chair design||-||Yes||Yes||Smart IoT||Basic||Yes||No||-|
|Electrical Engineering||Electrical machinery, apparatus, energy||5|
|IT methods for management||1|
|Chemistry||Surface technology, coating||1|
|Mechanical Engineering||Thermal processes and apparatus||2|
|Other Fields||Furniture, games||27|
|Other consumer goods||2|
|S/N||Inventor||Description||Patent Right Holder||Patent Issue Date||Country|
|1||||Embedded sensors that disallow damage of an item (e.g., smartphone) by notifying users during vibrational movement on a surface (e.g., a table)||PayPal||April 2019||U.S.A.|
|2||||Power supply unit on all kinds of smart furniture||Filament and Co., Ltd.||April 2019||Korea|
|3||||Transmitter-based smart system for multi-directional positioning of a table||Beijing Hongtai Tongchuang Information Technology Co., Ltd.||February 2019||China|
|4||||Pressurized sensor smart bed||Evelyn Torres||February 2019||U.S.A.|
|5||||Position and posture management desk||Woka Smart Furniture (Guangzhou) Co., Ltd.||February 2019||China|
|6||||Automated display desk||Woka Smart Furniture (Guangzhou) Co., Ltd.||February 2019||China|
|7||||Light source-based monitoring system||Zhejiang Institute of Furniture and Hardware||February 2019||China|
|8||||Physiology-supporting decompression bed||Jining Yinzhou District Reading Wood Furniture Co., Ltd.||January 2019||China|
|9||||Smart ventilation-assisting doors||Taizhou Zhizi Technology Co., Ltd.||January 2019||China|
|10||||Stereoscope-based furniture design||Group Rui Co. Ltd.||January 2019||China|
|11||||Smart external windows/wall cleanser||Dongguan Fangfan Intelligent Technology Co., Ltd.||January 2019||China|
|12||||Automated theft detection unit||Nanjing Haiyin Communication Equipment Co., Ltd.||January 2019||China|
|13||||Stationary and rotatable bed frame||Huizhou Fuleshi Smart Home Co., Ltd.||November 2018||Taiwan|
|14||||Hidden smart furniture socket||Dongguan Lianzhou Intellectual Property Management Co., Ltd.||December 2018||China|
|15||||Movable drying system||Hefei Digital Electronic Information Technology Co., Ltd.||December 2018||China|
|16||||Automated supporting unit||Tianjin Nanyang Hushi Furniture Manufacturing Co., Ltd.||February 2019||China|
|17||||Wireless smart home unit||Heilongjiang University||December 2018||China|
|18||||Environmentally friendly matrass||Dongtai Daidaihong Furniture Co., Ltd.||December 2018||China|
|19||||Multipurpose smart bed||Anlu Shengmao Smart Home Design Co., Ltd.||December 2018||China|
|20||||Snoring-disallowing bed||Cixi Lianxing Intelligent Furniture Co., Ltd.||November 2018||China|
|21||||Fatigue-preventing smart bed||Zhejiang Yueqiang Furniture Technology Co., Ltd.||November 2018||China|
|22||||Zigbee-based weather monitoring curtains||Foshan University of Science and Technology||November 2018||China|
|23||||Lighting table with smart functions||Chizhou Qingxi Information Technology Service Co., Ltd.||July 2018||China|
|24||||Physiology-enhancing smart furniture (with chair and mattress features)||Teslink (Beijing) Technology Co., Ltd.||November 2018||China|
|25||||Household voice identification unit||Wang Jianlong||November 2018||China|
|26||||Heating floor with energy efficiency||Xiaogan Kaixin Smart Home Design Co., Ltd.||November 2018||China|
|27||||Massage and rest chair/bed unit||Huizhou Fuleshi Smart Home Co., Ltd.||August 2018||Taiwan|
|28||||A smart furniture unit||Hangzhou Siwenke Technology Co., Ltd.||November 2018||China|
|29||||Smart air-purifying unit||Zhengzhou Weihaojia Electronic Technology Co., Ltd.||October 2018||China|
|30||||Automated furniture||Huang Yonghuai||October 2018||China|
|31||||Automated radio-frequency-based furniture||Xi′an University of Technology||October 2018||China|
|32||||Smart switch unit||Huzhou Nanxun Meiruixin Furniture Co., Ltd.||September 2018||China|
|33||||Smart desk structure||Huisen Furniture (Longnan) Co., Ltd.||September 2018||China|
|34||||IoT-based furniture||Chongqing Zhengluo Education Technology Co., Ltd.||September 2018||China|
|35||||Automated audio controller||Guangzhou Pengyi Intelligent Technology Co., Ltd.||September 2018||China|
|36||||Smart multipurpose furniture||Zhongshan Qujia Intelligent Furniture Co., Ltd.||August 2018||China|
|37||||Voice-enhancing furniture unit||Hangzhou Zhiren Construction Engineering Co., Ltd.||July 2018||China|
|38||||Automated tea table with embedded display unit||Chengdu New Kaiers Furniture Co., Ltd.||June 2018||China|
|39||||Automated joint control unit for windows and doors||Xiong Zhicheng||May 2018||China|
|40||||Wireless mobile furniture controller||Wuhu Le Ruisi Information Consulting Co., Ltd.||March 2018||China|
|41||||IoT-enabled sport hand band||Zhuhai Liangchuang Intelligent Internet of Things Research Institute Co., Ltd.||January 2018||China|
|42||||Wireless lighting controller||Hubei Institute for Nationalities, Hubei Kelan Technology Co., Ltd.||December 2017||China|
|43||||Smart cabinet with embedded dryer and dehumidifier||Hefei Chaoying Industrial Design Co., Ltd.||December 2017||China|
|44||||Multipurpose self-cleaning window||Yanggu Zhuowei Smart Home Co., Ltd.||November 2017||China|
|45||||Multipurpose intelligent mirror||Xiaochang County Ruike Intelligent Technology Co., Ltd.||November 2017||China|
|46||||Heat and alarm-based sofa||Haining Haipai Furniture Co., Ltd.||September 2017||China|
|47||||Data storage and decoding furniture||Ningxia Lingzhi Technology Co., Ltd.||August 2017||China|
|48||||Smart curtains||Anhui Meier Fashion Home Shade Manufacturing Co., Ltd.||June 2017||China|
|49||||Temperature-regulating sofa||Haining Haipai Furniture Co., Ltd.||June 2017||China|
|50||||Automated wardrobe||Jaeki Kim||May 2017||Korea|
|51||||Light-sensing convertible and detachable furniture unit||Sungyong Lee||May 2017||Korea|
|52||||Health-monitoring furniture||Furniture of America Inc||June 2017||U.S.A.|
|53||||Wireless particle monitoring window||Henan Linghai Whole Furniture Co., Ltd.||June 2016||China|
|54||||Exercise-enabled office/home sport chair||Wuxi Tongchun New Energy Technology Co., Ltd.||December 2015||China|
|55||||Air purifier and foul remover photocatalytic unit||Guangdong Zuofan Smart Home Technology Co., Ltd.||September 2015||China|
|56||||Elderly monitoring unit||Kevin Doughty||October 2000||U.K.|
|57||||Sleep-enhancing electric bed||ixi Lianxing Intelligent Furniture Co., Ltd.||November 2018||China|
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