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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Accurate Landing of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Ground Pattern Recognition

1
Faculty of Applied Engineering, Electronics-ICT, IDLab University of Antwerp, 2000 Antwerp, Belgium
2
Departament of Computer Engineering (DISCA), Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain
3
Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rzeszow University of Technology, 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland
4
imec Antwerp, 2000 Antwerpen, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Electronics 2019, 8(12), 1532; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121532
Received: 6 November 2019 / Revised: 29 November 2019 / Accepted: 3 December 2019 / Published: 12 December 2019
Over the last few years, several researchers have been developing protocols and applications in order to autonomously land unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). However, most of the proposed protocols rely on expensive equipment or do not satisfy the high precision needs of some UAV applications such as package retrieval and delivery or the compact landing of UAV swarms. Therefore, in this work, a solution for high precision landing based on the use of ArUco markers is presented. In the proposed solution, a UAV equipped with a low-cost camera is able to detect ArUco markers sized 56 × 56 cm from an altitude of up to 30 m. Once the marker is detected, the UAV changes its flight behavior in order to land on the exact position where the marker is located. The proposal was evaluated and validated using both the ArduSim simulation platform and real UAV flights. The results show an average offset of only 11 cm from the target position, which vastly improves the landing accuracy compared to the traditional GPS-based landing, which typically deviates from the intended target by 1 to 3 m. View Full-Text
Keywords: UAV; autonomous landing; vision-based; ArduSim; ArUco marker UAV; autonomous landing; vision-based; ArduSim; ArUco marker
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wubben, J.; Fabra, F.; Calafate, C.T.; Krzeszowski, T.; Marquez-Barja, J.M.; Cano, J.-C.; Manzoni, P. Accurate Landing of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Ground Pattern Recognition. Electronics 2019, 8, 1532. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121532

AMA Style

Wubben J, Fabra F, Calafate CT, Krzeszowski T, Marquez-Barja JM, Cano J-C, Manzoni P. Accurate Landing of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Ground Pattern Recognition. Electronics. 2019; 8(12):1532. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121532

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wubben, Jamie; Fabra, Francisco; Calafate, Carlos T.; Krzeszowski, Tomasz; Marquez-Barja, Johann M.; Cano, Juan-Carlos; Manzoni, Pietro. 2019. "Accurate Landing of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Ground Pattern Recognition" Electronics 8, no. 12: 1532. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121532

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