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Open AccessArticle

Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.11p for Continuous Backoff Freezing in IoV

by Qiong Wu 1,2,*,†, Siyang Xia 2,†, Qiang Fan 3 and Zhengquan Li 1
Department of Electronic Engineering, The Beijing National Research Center for Information Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Jiangsu Provincial Engineering Laboratory for Pattern Recognition and Computational Intelligence, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China
Advanced Networking Lab., Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Electronics 2019, 8(12), 1404;
Received: 10 October 2019 / Revised: 20 November 2019 / Accepted: 21 November 2019 / Published: 25 November 2019
With the rapid development of cloud computing and big data, traditional Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) are evolving into the Internet of Vehicles (IoV). As an important communication technology in IoV, IEEE 802.11p protocols have been studied by many experts and scholars. In IEEE 802.11p, a node’s backoff counter will be frozen when the channel is detected as busy. However, most studies did not consider the possibility of continuous backoff freezing when calculating delay. Thus, in this paper, we focus on the performance analysis of IEEE 802.11p for continuous backoff freezing. Specifically, we establish an analytical model to analyze the broadcast performance in the highway scene where vehicles can obtain traffic density from roadside units through Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) communications. We first calculate the relationship between vehicle density and the number of vehicles. Then, we derive the relationship between the number of vehicles and packet delay according to Markov chains. Next, we utilize the probability generating function (PGF) to transform traditional Markov chains into z domain under the situation of non-saturation. Finally, we employ the Mason formula to derive packet delay. As compared with the performance without considering the continuous backoff freezing, the simulation results have demonstrated that our analytical model is more reasonable. View Full-Text
Keywords: IEEE 802.11p; continuous backoff freezing; IoV; packet delay; packet delivery ratio IEEE 802.11p; continuous backoff freezing; IoV; packet delay; packet delivery ratio
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Wu, Q.; Xia, S.; Fan, Q.; Li, Z. Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.11p for Continuous Backoff Freezing in IoV. Electronics 2019, 8, 1404.

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