With the rapid development of cloud computing and big data, traditional Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) are evolving into the Internet of Vehicles (IoV). As an important communication technology in IoV, IEEE 802.11p protocols have been studied by many experts and scholars. In IEEE 802.11p, a node’s backoff counter will be frozen when the channel is detected as busy. However, most studies did not consider the possibility of continuous backoff freezing when calculating delay. Thus, in this paper, we focus on the performance analysis of IEEE 802.11p for continuous backoff freezing. Specifically, we establish an analytical model to analyze the broadcast performance in the highway scene where vehicles can obtain traffic density from roadside units through Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) communications. We first calculate the relationship between vehicle density and the number of vehicles. Then, we derive the relationship between the number of vehicles and packet delay according to Markov chains. Next, we utilize the probability generating function (PGF) to transform traditional Markov chains into z
domain under the situation of non-saturation. Finally, we employ the Mason formula to derive packet delay. As compared with the performance without considering the continuous backoff freezing, the simulation results have demonstrated that our analytical model is more reasonable.
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