In recent years, the accurate and real-time classification of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals has drawn increasing attention in the application of brain-computer interface technology (BCI). Supervised methods used to classify EEG signals have gotten satisfactory results. However, unlabeled samples are more frequent than labeled samples, so how to simultaneously utilize limited labeled samples and many unlabeled samples becomes a research hotspot. In this paper, we propose a new graph-based semi-supervised broad learning system (GSS-BLS), which combines the graph label propagation method to obtain pseudo-labels and then trains the GSS-BLS classifier together with other labeled samples. Three BCI competition datasets are used to assess the GSS-BLS approach and five comparison algorithms: BLS, ELM, HELM, LapSVM and SMIR. The experimental results show that GSS-BLS achieves satisfying Cohen’s kappa values in three datasets. GSS-BLS achieves the better results of each subject in the 2-class and 4-class datasets and has significant improvements compared with original BLS except subject C6. Therefore, the proposed GSS-BLS is an effective semi-supervised algorithm for classifying EEG signals.
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