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Open AccessArticle

Ground-Based 3D Radar Imaging of Trees Using a 2D Synthetic Aperture

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nicolas H. Younan and John E. Ball
Electronics 2017, 6(1), 11;
Received: 6 December 2016 / Revised: 2 January 2017 / Accepted: 13 January 2017 / Published: 23 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radio and Radar Signal Processing)
PDF [4259 KB, uploaded 24 January 2017]


Motivated by the desire to gain insight into the details of conventional airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging of trees, a ground-based SAR system designed for short-range three-dimensional (3D) radar imaging is developed using a two-dimensional (2D) synthetic aperture. The heart of the system is a compact linear frequency modulation-continuous wave (LFM-CW) radar, a custom two-dimensional scan mechanism, and a three-dimensional time-domain backprojection algorithm that generates three-dimensional backscatter images at an over-sampled resolution of 10 cm by 10 cm by 10 cm. The backprojection algorithm is formulated directly in spatial coordinates. A new method for estimating and compensating for signal attenuation within the canopy is used that exploits the backprojection image formation approach. Several three-dimensional C-band backscatter images of different individual trees of multiple species are generated from data collected for trees both in isolation and near buildings. The trees imaged in this study are about 10 m in height. The transformation of the three-dimensional images to airborne SAR images is described and a sample result provided. View Full-Text
Keywords: radar; synthetic aperture radar; back projection; SAR tomography; vegetation scattering radar; synthetic aperture radar; back projection; SAR tomography; vegetation scattering

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Penner, J.F.; Long, D.G. Ground-Based 3D Radar Imaging of Trees Using a 2D Synthetic Aperture. Electronics 2017, 6, 11.

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