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A Comparative Review of Footwear-Based Wearable Systems

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Alabama; Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Enzo Pasquale Scilingo and Gaetano Valenza
Electronics 2016, 5(3), 48;
Received: 14 July 2016 / Revised: 28 July 2016 / Accepted: 1 August 2016 / Published: 10 August 2016
PDF [1348 KB, uploaded 10 August 2016]


Footwear is an integral part of daily life. Embedding sensors and electronics in footwear for various different applications started more than two decades ago. This review article summarizes the developments in the field of footwear-based wearable sensors and systems. The electronics, sensing technologies, data transmission, and data processing methodologies of such wearable systems are all principally dependent on the target application. Hence, the article describes key application scenarios utilizing footwear-based systems with critical discussion on their merits. The reviewed application scenarios include gait monitoring, plantar pressure measurement, posture and activity classification, body weight and energy expenditure estimation, biofeedback, navigation, and fall risk applications. In addition, energy harvesting from the footwear is also considered for review. The article also attempts to shed light on some of the most recent developments in the field along with the future work required to advance the field. View Full-Text
Keywords: accelerometry; energy expenditure; energy harvesting; footwear; gait; plantar pressure; wearable sensors accelerometry; energy expenditure; energy harvesting; footwear; gait; plantar pressure; wearable sensors

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Hegde, N.; Bries, M.; Sazonov, E. A Comparative Review of Footwear-Based Wearable Systems. Electronics 2016, 5, 48.

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