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Article

An Effective Algorithm for MAED Problems with a New Reliability Model at the Microgrid

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Institute of High Voltage & High Current, School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310, Malaysia
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College of Engineering and Science, Victoria University, Melbourne 3047, Australia
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Department of Electrical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Khalkhal Branch, Khalkhal 31367-56817, Iran
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School of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310, Malaysia
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The Villum Center for Research on Microgrids CROM Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, 9220 Aalborg East, Denmark
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sonia Leva
Electronics 2021, 10(3), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10030257
Received: 26 November 2020 / Revised: 26 December 2020 / Accepted: 4 January 2021 / Published: 22 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Regional Energy Systems and Microgrids)
This paper proposes a new framework for multi-area economic dispatch (MAED) in which the cost associated with the reliability consideration is taken into account together with the common operational and emission costs using expected energy not supplied (EENS) index. To improve the reliability level, the spinning reserve capacity is considered in the model as well. Furthermore, the MAED optimization problem and non-smooth cost functions are taken into account as well as other technical limitations such as tie-line capacity restriction, ramp rate limits, and prohibited operating zones at the microgrid. Considering all the above practical issues increases the complexity in terms of optimization, which, in turn, necessitates the use of a powerful optimization tool. A new successful algorithm inspired by phasor theory in mathematics, called phasor particle swarm optimization (PPSO), is used in this paper to address this problem. In PPSO, the particles’ update rules are driven by phase angles to essentially ensure a spread of variants across the population so that exploitation and exploration can be balanced. The optimal results obtained via simulations confirmed the capability of the proposed PPSO algorithm to find suitable optimal solutions for the proposed model. View Full-Text
Keywords: microgrid; multi-area economic dispatch (MAED); phasor particle swarm optimization (PPSO); reliability-based MAED; reserve constraints; total pollutant emissions microgrid; multi-area economic dispatch (MAED); phasor particle swarm optimization (PPSO); reliability-based MAED; reserve constraints; total pollutant emissions
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MDPI and ACS Style

Naderipour, A.; Kalam, A.; Abdul-Malek, Z.; Faraji Davoudkhani, I.; Mustafa, M.W.B.; Guerrero, J.M. An Effective Algorithm for MAED Problems with a New Reliability Model at the Microgrid. Electronics 2021, 10, 257. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10030257

AMA Style

Naderipour A, Kalam A, Abdul-Malek Z, Faraji Davoudkhani I, Mustafa MWB, Guerrero JM. An Effective Algorithm for MAED Problems with a New Reliability Model at the Microgrid. Electronics. 2021; 10(3):257. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10030257

Chicago/Turabian Style

Naderipour, Amirreza, Akhtar Kalam, Zulkurnain Abdul-Malek, Iraj Faraji Davoudkhani, Mohd Wazir Bin Mustafa, and Josep M. Guerrero. 2021. "An Effective Algorithm for MAED Problems with a New Reliability Model at the Microgrid" Electronics 10, no. 3: 257. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10030257

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