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Review

Review of Electric Vehicle Technologies, Charging Methods, Standards and Optimization Techniques

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Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland 1010, New Zealand
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Department of Industrial and Utilities, WSP, Auckland 1010, New Zealand
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Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Mohammadia School of Engineers, Mohammed V University, Rabat 10070, Morocco
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nicu Bizon
Electronics 2021, 10(16), 1910; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10161910
Received: 12 July 2021 / Revised: 31 July 2021 / Accepted: 4 August 2021 / Published: 9 August 2021
This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of electric vehicle technology, charging methods, standards, and optimization techniques. The essential characteristics of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) and Electric Vehicle (EV) are first discussed. Recent research on EV charging methods such as Battery Swap Station (BSS), Wireless Power Transfer (WPT), and Conductive Charging (CC) are then presented. This is followed by a discussion of EV standards such as charging levels and their configurations. Next, some of the most used optimization techniques for the sizing and placement of EV charging stations are analyzed. Finally, based on the insights gained, several recommendations are put forward for future research. View Full-Text
Keywords: electric vehicle; hybrid electric vehicle; EV charging; EV standards; optimization electric vehicle; hybrid electric vehicle; EV charging; EV standards; optimization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Arif, S.M.; Lie, T.T.; Seet, B.C.; Ayyadi, S.; Jensen, K. Review of Electric Vehicle Technologies, Charging Methods, Standards and Optimization Techniques. Electronics 2021, 10, 1910. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10161910

AMA Style

Arif SM, Lie TT, Seet BC, Ayyadi S, Jensen K. Review of Electric Vehicle Technologies, Charging Methods, Standards and Optimization Techniques. Electronics. 2021; 10(16):1910. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10161910

Chicago/Turabian Style

Arif, Syed M., Tek T. Lie, Boon C. Seet, Soumia Ayyadi, and Kristian Jensen. 2021. "Review of Electric Vehicle Technologies, Charging Methods, Standards and Optimization Techniques" Electronics 10, no. 16: 1910. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10161910

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