The aging process encompasses gradual and continuous changes at the cellular level that slowly accumulate with age. The signs of aging include many physiological changes in both skin and hair such as fine lines, wrinkles, age spots, hair thinning and hair loss. The aim of the current study was to investigate the anti-aging potential of coffee berry extract (CBE) on human dermal fibroblast (HDF) and hair follicle dermal papilla (HFDP) cells. Coffee berry was extracted by 50% ethanol and determined for chemical constituents by HPLC technique. Cytotoxicity of the extract was examined on both cells by MTT assay. Then, HDF cells were used to evaluate antioxidant properties by using superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and nitric oxide inhibition as well as anti-collagenase inhibition assays. The effectiveness of anti-hair loss properties was investigated in HFDP cells by considering cell proliferation, 5α-reductase inhibition (5AR), and growth factor expression. The results showed that caffeine and chlorogenic acid were identified as major constituents in CBE. CBE had lower toxicity and cell proliferation than caffeine and chlorogenic acid on both cells. CBE showed SOD and nitric oxide inhibition activities that were higher than those of caffeine but lower than those of chlorogenic acid. Interestingly, CBE had the highest significant anti-collagenase activity, and its 5AR inhibition activity was comparable to that of chlorogenic acid, which was higher than caffeine. CBE also stimulated hair-related gene expression, especially insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The results confirmed that CBE provided anti-aging activity on both skin and hair cells and could be beneficial for applications in cosmeceuticals.
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