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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Analysis of Heavy Metal Content in Conventional and Herbal Toothpastes Available at Maltese Pharmacies

1
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Malta, Msida MSD 2080, Malta
2
Division of Rural Sciences and Food Systems, Institute of Earth Systems, University of Malta, Msida MSD 2080, Malta
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cosmetics 2019, 6(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6020028
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 29 April 2019 / Accepted: 30 April 2019 / Published: 3 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetics: Feature Papers)
Although toothpastes are considered as topical cosmetics that are not normally ingested, it is evident that they may contribute to the introduction of heavy metals and xenobiotics through buccal and gastrointestinal absorption. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential presence of metals and polyphenols in conventional, children’s and herbal toothpastes. Metal analysis was conducted by using the Microwave Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer and the total polyphenolic content was determined by using the Folin–Ciocalteu test. Results showed that cadmium and mercury were absent in all toothpastes while zinc and tin exhibited high values. This was because the latter two metals are incorporated as part of the ingredients. In the case of polyphenols, the highest value was obtained in one of the samples from the children’s toothpaste category while the lowest value was obtained from the conventional toothpaste category. Lead and nickel were two other metals that fell outside the limits for EU and US standards. Most of these limits are usually applicable to topical cosmetic products or food products. However, these may not adequately cover oral hygiene products, such as toothpastes. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy metals; total polyphenolic content; international standards; toothpastes heavy metals; total polyphenolic content; international standards; toothpastes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vella, A.; Attard, E. Analysis of Heavy Metal Content in Conventional and Herbal Toothpastes Available at Maltese Pharmacies. Cosmetics 2019, 6, 28.

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