Next Article in Journal
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications in 2016
Previous Article in Journal
InGaAs-OI Substrate Fabrication on a 300 mm Wafer
Previous Article in Special Issue
Stochastic-Based Spin-Programmable Gate Array with Emerging MTJ Device Technology
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
J. Low Power Electron. Appl. 2016, 6(4), 20;

Low Power Design for Future Wearable and Implantable Devices

Department of Engineering, Aarhus University, Aarhus 8000, Denmark
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ka Lok Man, M. L. Dennis Wong and Chao Lu
Received: 25 July 2016 / Revised: 27 September 2016 / Accepted: 12 October 2016 / Published: 20 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Emerging Low Power Circuits and Systems)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1284 KB, uploaded 20 October 2016]   |  


With the fast progress in miniaturization of sensors and advances in micromachinery systems, a gate has been opened to the researchers to develop extremely small wearable/implantable microsystems for different applications. However, these devices are reaching not to a physical limit but a power limit, which is a critical limit for further miniaturization to develop smaller and smarter wearable/implantable devices (WIDs), especially for multi-task continuous computing purposes. Developing smaller and smarter devices with more functionality requires larger batteries, which are currently the main power provider for such devices. However, batteries have a fixed energy density, limited lifetime and chemical side effect plus the fact that the total size of the WID is dominated by the battery size. These issues make the design very challenging or even impossible. A promising solution is to design batteryless WIDs scavenging energy from human or environment including but not limited to temperature variations through thermoelectric generator (TEG) devices, body movement through Piezoelectric devices, solar energy through miniature solar cells, radio-frequency (RF) harvesting through antenna etc. However, the energy provided by each of these harvesting mechanisms is very limited and thus cannot be used for complex tasks. Therefore, a more comprehensive solution is the use of different harvesting mechanisms on a single platform providing enough energy for more complex tasks without the need of batteries. In addition to this, complex tasks can be done by designing Integrated Circuits (ICs), as the main core and the most power consuming component of any WID, in an extremely low power mode by lowering the supply voltage utilizing low-voltage design techniques. Having the ICs operational at very low voltages, will enable designing battery-less WIDs for complex tasks, which will be discussed in details throughout this paper. In this paper, a path towards battery-less computing is drawn by looking at device circuit co-design for future system-on-chips (SoCs). View Full-Text
Keywords: low power circuit design; FinFET; sub-threshold region; SRAM; STT-RAM; OpAmp; LNA; energy harvesting; solar energy; ultrasonic harvesting low power circuit design; FinFET; sub-threshold region; SRAM; STT-RAM; OpAmp; LNA; energy harvesting; solar energy; ultrasonic harvesting

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lundager, K.; Zeinali, B.; Tohidi, M.; Madsen, J.K.; Moradi, F. Low Power Design for Future Wearable and Implantable Devices. J. Low Power Electron. Appl. 2016, 6, 20.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
J. Low Power Electron. Appl. EISSN 2079-9268 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top