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Open AccessArticle

Properties of Arabinogalactan Proteins (AGPs) in Apple (Malus × Domestica) Fruit at Different Stages of Ripening

1
Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Doświadczalna 4, 20-290 Lublin, Poland
2
Confocal and Electron Microscopy Laboratory, Centre for Interdisciplinary Research, John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Al. Kraśnicka 102, 20-718 Lublin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biology 2020, 9(8), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9080225
Received: 8 July 2020 / Revised: 4 August 2020 / Accepted: 11 August 2020 / Published: 14 August 2020
Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are constituents of the cell wall–plasma membrane continuum in fruit tissue. The aim of the study was to characterise AGPs contained in fruit by determination of their chemical structure and morphological properties. The results were obtained from in and ex situ investigations and a comparative analysis of AGPs present in Malus × domestica fruit at different stages of ripening from green fruit through the mature stage to over-ripening during fruit storage. The HPLC and colorimetric methods were used for analyses of the composition of monosaccharides and proteins in AGPs extracted from fruit. We have found that AGPs from fruit mainly consists of carbohydrate chains composed predominantly of arabinose, galactose, glucose, galacturonic acid, and xylose. The protein moiety accounts for 3.15–4.58%, which depends on the various phases of ripening. Taken together, our results show that the structural and morphological properties of AGPs and calcium concentration in AGPs are related to the progress of ripening, which is correlated with proper fruit cell wall assembly. In line with the existing knowledge, our data confirmed the typical carbohydrate composition of AGPs and may be the basis for studies regarding their presumed properties of binding calcium ions. View Full-Text
Keywords: arabinogalactan proteins; calcium; cell wall; fruit; ripening process; structural properties arabinogalactan proteins; calcium; cell wall; fruit; ripening process; structural properties
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Leszczuk, A.; Cybulska, J.; Skrzypek, T.; Zdunek, A. Properties of Arabinogalactan Proteins (AGPs) in Apple (Malus × Domestica) Fruit at Different Stages of Ripening. Biology 2020, 9, 225.

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