Next Article in Journal
Radiation-Induced Senescence Bystander Effect: The Role of Exosomes
Next Article in Special Issue
Non-Coding RNAs and Nucleosome Remodeling Complexes: An Intricate Regulatory Relationship
Previous Article in Journal
Phylogenetic Diversity of Trichoderma Strains and Their Antagonistic Potential against Soil-Borne Pathogens under Stress Conditions
Previous Article in Special Issue
Regulation of the Mammalian SWI/SNF Family of Chromatin Remodeling Enzymes by Phosphorylation during Myogenesis
Review

Interplay among ATP-Dependent Chromatin Remodelers Determines Chromatin Organisation in Yeast

1
Division of Developmental Biology, NICHD, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
2
Instituto de Investigaciones en Ingeniería Genética y Biología Molecular “Dr. Héctor N. Torres” (INGEBI-CONICET), Buenos Aires C1428ADN, Argentina
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biology 2020, 9(8), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9080190
Received: 27 June 2020 / Revised: 15 July 2020 / Accepted: 21 July 2020 / Published: 25 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ATP-dependent Chromatin Remodeler)
Cellular DNA is packaged into chromatin, which is composed of regularly-spaced nucleosomes with occasional gaps corresponding to active regulatory elements, such as promoters and enhancers, called nucleosome-depleted regions (NDRs). This chromatin organisation is primarily determined by the activities of a set of ATP-dependent remodeling enzymes that are capable of moving nucleosomes along DNA, or of evicting nucleosomes altogether. In yeast, the nucleosome-spacing enzymes are ISW1 (Imitation SWitch protein 1), Chromodomain-Helicase-DNA-binding (CHD)1, ISW2 (Imitation SWitch protein 2) and INOsitol-requiring 80 (INO80); the nucleosome eviction enzymes are the SWItching/Sucrose Non-Fermenting (SWI/SNF) family, the Remodeling the Structure of Chromatin (RSC) complexes and INO80. We discuss the contributions of each set of enzymes to chromatin organisation. ISW1 and CHD1 are the major spacing enzymes; loss of both enzymes results in major chromatin disruption, partly due to the appearance of close-packed di-nucleosomes. ISW1 and CHD1 compete to set nucleosome spacing on most genes. ISW1 is dominant, setting wild type spacing, whereas CHD1 sets short spacing and may dominate on highly-transcribed genes. We propose that the competing remodelers regulate spacing, which in turn controls the binding of linker histone (H1) and therefore the degree of chromatin folding. Thus, genes with long spacing bind more H1, resulting in increased chromatin compaction. RSC, SWI/SNF and INO80 are involved in NDR formation, either directly by nucleosome eviction or repositioning, or indirectly by affecting the size of the complex that resides in the NDR. The nature of this complex is controversial: some suggest that it is a RSC-bound “fragile nucleosome”, whereas we propose that it is a non-histone transcription complex. In either case, this complex appears to serve as a barrier to nucleosome formation, resulting in the formation of phased nucleosomal arrays on both sides. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chromatin; Chromatin remodelers; ISW1; ISW2; INO80; CHD1; SWI/SNF; RSC; nucleosome spacing; nucleosome phasing Chromatin; Chromatin remodelers; ISW1; ISW2; INO80; CHD1; SWI/SNF; RSC; nucleosome spacing; nucleosome phasing
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Prajapati, H.K.; Ocampo, J.; Clark, D.J. Interplay among ATP-Dependent Chromatin Remodelers Determines Chromatin Organisation in Yeast. Biology 2020, 9, 190. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9080190

AMA Style

Prajapati HK, Ocampo J, Clark DJ. Interplay among ATP-Dependent Chromatin Remodelers Determines Chromatin Organisation in Yeast. Biology. 2020; 9(8):190. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9080190

Chicago/Turabian Style

Prajapati, Hemant K., Josefina Ocampo, and David J. Clark. 2020. "Interplay among ATP-Dependent Chromatin Remodelers Determines Chromatin Organisation in Yeast" Biology 9, no. 8: 190. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9080190

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop