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Open AccessArticle

Kinematic Sub-Populations in Bull Spermatozoa: A Comparison of Classical and Bayesian Approaches

1
Costa Rica Institute of Technology, School of Agronomy, San Carlos Campus, 223-21002 Alajuela, Costa Rica
2
Department of Cellular Biology, Functional Biology and Physical Anthropology, University of Valencia, Campus Burjassot, C/Dr Moliner, 50, 46100 Burjassot, Spain
3
Proiser R+D, Av. Catedrático Agustín Escardino, 9, Building 3 (CUE), Floor 1, 46980 Paterna, Spain
4
Department of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC), 28006 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biology 2020, 9(6), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9060138
Received: 5 June 2020 / Revised: 19 June 2020 / Accepted: 22 June 2020 / Published: 26 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Factors Affecting In Vitro Assessment of Sperm Quality)
The ejaculate is heterogenous and sperm sub-populations with different kinematic patterns can be identified in various species. Nevertheless, although these sub-populations are statistically well defined, the statistical differences are not always relevant. The aim of the present study was to characterize kinematic sub-populations in sperm from two bovine species, and diluted with different commercial extenders, and to determine the statistical relevance of sub-populations through Bayesian analysis. Semen from 10 bulls was evaluated after thawing. An ISAS®v1 computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA)-Mot system was employed with an image acquisition rate of 50 Hz and ISAS®D4C20 counting chambers. Sub-populations of motile spermatozoa were characterized using multivariate procedures such as principal components (PCs) analysis and clustering methods (k-means model). Four different sperm sub-populations were identified from three PCs that involved progressiveness, velocity, and cell undulatory movement. The proportions of the different sperm sub-populations varied with the extender used and in the two species. Despite a statistical difference (p < 0.05) between extenders, the Bayesian analysis confirmed that only one of them (Triladyl®) presented relevant differences in kinematic patterns when compared with Tris-EY and OptiXcell®. Extenders differed in the proportion of sperm cells in each of the kinematic sub-populations. Similar patterns were identified in Bos taurus and Bos indicus. Bayesian results indicate that sub-populations SP1, SP2, and SP3 were different for PC criteria and these differences were relevant. For velocity, linearity, and progressiveness, the SP4 did not show a relevant difference regarding the other sperm sub-populations. The classical approach of clustering or sperm subpopulation thus may not have a direct biological meaning. Therefore, the biological relevance of sperm sub-populations needs to be reevaluated. View Full-Text
Keywords: spermatozoa; bull; cluster; kinematics; motility; CASA spermatozoa; bull; cluster; kinematics; motility; CASA
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Víquez, L.; Barquero, V.; Soler, C.; Roldan, E.R.; Valverde, A. Kinematic Sub-Populations in Bull Spermatozoa: A Comparison of Classical and Bayesian Approaches. Biology 2020, 9, 138.

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