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Open AccessArticle

Kinematic Sub-Populations in Bull Spermatozoa: A Comparison of Classical and Bayesian Approaches

Costa Rica Institute of Technology, School of Agronomy, San Carlos Campus, 223-21002 Alajuela, Costa Rica
Department of Cellular Biology, Functional Biology and Physical Anthropology, University of Valencia, Campus Burjassot, C/Dr Moliner, 50, 46100 Burjassot, Spain
Proiser R+D, Av. Catedrático Agustín Escardino, 9, Building 3 (CUE), Floor 1, 46980 Paterna, Spain
Department of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC), 28006 Madrid, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biology 2020, 9(6), 138;
Received: 5 June 2020 / Revised: 19 June 2020 / Accepted: 22 June 2020 / Published: 26 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Factors Affecting In Vitro Assessment of Sperm Quality)
The ejaculate is heterogenous and sperm sub-populations with different kinematic patterns can be identified in various species. Nevertheless, although these sub-populations are statistically well defined, the statistical differences are not always relevant. The aim of the present study was to characterize kinematic sub-populations in sperm from two bovine species, and diluted with different commercial extenders, and to determine the statistical relevance of sub-populations through Bayesian analysis. Semen from 10 bulls was evaluated after thawing. An ISAS®v1 computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA)-Mot system was employed with an image acquisition rate of 50 Hz and ISAS®D4C20 counting chambers. Sub-populations of motile spermatozoa were characterized using multivariate procedures such as principal components (PCs) analysis and clustering methods (k-means model). Four different sperm sub-populations were identified from three PCs that involved progressiveness, velocity, and cell undulatory movement. The proportions of the different sperm sub-populations varied with the extender used and in the two species. Despite a statistical difference (p < 0.05) between extenders, the Bayesian analysis confirmed that only one of them (Triladyl®) presented relevant differences in kinematic patterns when compared with Tris-EY and OptiXcell®. Extenders differed in the proportion of sperm cells in each of the kinematic sub-populations. Similar patterns were identified in Bos taurus and Bos indicus. Bayesian results indicate that sub-populations SP1, SP2, and SP3 were different for PC criteria and these differences were relevant. For velocity, linearity, and progressiveness, the SP4 did not show a relevant difference regarding the other sperm sub-populations. The classical approach of clustering or sperm subpopulation thus may not have a direct biological meaning. Therefore, the biological relevance of sperm sub-populations needs to be reevaluated. View Full-Text
Keywords: spermatozoa; bull; cluster; kinematics; motility; CASA spermatozoa; bull; cluster; kinematics; motility; CASA
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Víquez, L.; Barquero, V.; Soler, C.; Roldan, E.R.; Valverde, A. Kinematic Sub-Populations in Bull Spermatozoa: A Comparison of Classical and Bayesian Approaches. Biology 2020, 9, 138.

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