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Extracellular Vesicles and Post-Translational Protein Deimination Signatures in Mollusca—The Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis), Soft Shell Clam (Mya arenaria), Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) and Atlantic Jacknife Clam (Ensis leei)

1
Aquaculture Research Institute, School of Food & Agriculture, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469-5735, USA
2
Electron Microscopy Suite, Faculty of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK
3
Tissue Architecture and Regeneration Research Group, School of Life Sciences, University of Westminster, London W1W 6UW, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biology 2020, 9(12), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9120416
Received: 29 October 2020 / Revised: 20 November 2020 / Accepted: 23 November 2020 / Published: 25 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Biology)
Oysters and clams form an important component of the food chain and food security and are of considerable commercial value worldwide. They are affected by pollution and climate change, as well as a range of infections, some of which are opportunistic. For aquaculture purposes they are furthermore of great commercial value and changes in their immune responses can also serve as indicators of changes in ocean environments. Therefore, studies into understanding new factors in their immune systems may aid new biomarker discovery and are of considerable value. This study assessed new biomarkers relating to changes in protein function in four economically important marine molluscs, the blue mussel, soft shell clam, Eastern oyster, and Atlantic jacknife clam. These findings indicate novel regulatory mechanisms of important metabolic and immunology related pathways in these mollusks. The findings provide new understanding to how these pathways function in diverse ways in different animal species as well as aiding new biomarker discovery for Mollusca aquaculture.
Oysters and clams are important for food security and of commercial value worldwide. They are affected by anthropogenic changes and opportunistic pathogens and can be indicators of changes in ocean environments. Therefore, studies into biomarker discovery are of considerable value. This study aimed at assessing extracellular vesicle (EV) signatures and post-translational protein deimination profiles of hemolymph from four commercially valuable Mollusca species, the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), soft shell clam (Mya arenaria), Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), and Atlantic jacknife clam (Ensis leei). EVs form part of cellular communication by transporting protein and genetic cargo and play roles in immunity and host–pathogen interactions. Protein deimination is a post-translational modification caused by peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs), and can facilitate protein moonlighting in health and disease. The current study identified hemolymph-EV profiles in the four Mollusca species, revealing some species differences. Deiminated protein candidates differed in hemolymph between the species, with some common targets between all four species (e.g., histone H3 and H4, actin, and GAPDH), while other hits were species-specific; in blue mussel these included heavy metal binding protein, heat shock proteins 60 and 90, 2-phospho-D-glycerate hydrolyase, GTP cyclohydrolase feedback regulatory protein, sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase, and fibrinogen domain containing protein. In soft shell clam specific deimination hits included dynein, MCM3-associated protein, and SCRN. In Eastern oyster specific deimination hits included muscle LIM protein, beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein, myosin heavy chain, thaumatin-like protein, vWFA domain-containing protein, BTB domain-containing protein, amylase, and beta-catenin. Deiminated proteins specific to Atlantic jackknife clam included nacre c1q domain-containing protein and PDZ domain-containing protein In addition, some proteins were common as deiminated targets between two or three of the Bivalvia species under study (e.g., EP protein, C1q domain containing protein, histone H2B, tubulin, elongation factor 1-alpha, dominin, extracellular superoxide dismutase). Protein interaction network analysis for the deiminated protein hits revealed major pathways relevant for immunity and metabolism, providing novel insights into post-translational regulation via deimination. The study contributes to EV characterization in diverse taxa and understanding of roles for PAD-mediated regulation of immune and metabolic pathways throughout phylogeny. View Full-Text
Keywords: protein deimination/citrullination; peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD); extracellular vesicles (EVs); immunity; metabolism; Mollusca; clam; oyster protein deimination/citrullination; peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD); extracellular vesicles (EVs); immunity; metabolism; Mollusca; clam; oyster
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bowden, T.J.; Kraev, I.; Lange, S. Extracellular Vesicles and Post-Translational Protein Deimination Signatures in Mollusca—The Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis), Soft Shell Clam (Mya arenaria), Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) and Atlantic Jacknife Clam (Ensis leei). Biology 2020, 9, 416. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9120416

AMA Style

Bowden TJ, Kraev I, Lange S. Extracellular Vesicles and Post-Translational Protein Deimination Signatures in Mollusca—The Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis), Soft Shell Clam (Mya arenaria), Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) and Atlantic Jacknife Clam (Ensis leei). Biology. 2020; 9(12):416. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9120416

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bowden, Timothy J.; Kraev, Igor; Lange, Sigrun. 2020. "Extracellular Vesicles and Post-Translational Protein Deimination Signatures in Mollusca—The Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis), Soft Shell Clam (Mya arenaria), Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) and Atlantic Jacknife Clam (Ensis leei)" Biology 9, no. 12: 416. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9120416

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