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Chronotype and Social Jetlag: A (Self-) Critical Review

Institute of Medical Psychology, LMU Munich, 80336 Munich, Germany
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Psiquiatria e Ciências do Comportamento, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre 90035-003, Brazil
Laboratório de Cronobiologia e Sono, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre 90035-903, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biology 2019, 8(3), 54;
Received: 7 May 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Clocks)
The Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) has now been available for more than 15 years and its original publication has been cited 1240 times (Google Scholar, May 2019). Additionally, its online version, which was available until July 2017, produced almost 300,000 entries from all over the world (MCTQ database). The MCTQ has gone through several versions, has been translated into 13 languages, and has been validated against other more objective measures of daily timing in several independent studies. Besides being used as a method to correlate circadian features of human biology with other factors—ranging from health issues to geographical factors—the MCTQ gave rise to the quantification of old wisdoms, like “teenagers are late”, and has produced new concepts, like social jetlag. Some like the MCTQ’s simplicity and some view it critically. Therefore, it is time to present a self-critical view on the MCTQ, to address some misunderstandings, and give some definitions of the MCTQ-derived chronotype and the concept of social jetlag. View Full-Text
Keywords: sleep-wake timing; circadian clock; entrainment; light; period; phase sleep-wake timing; circadian clock; entrainment; light; period; phase
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MDPI and ACS Style

Roenneberg, T.; Pilz, L.K.; Zerbini, G.; Winnebeck, E.C. Chronotype and Social Jetlag: A (Self-) Critical Review. Biology 2019, 8, 54.

AMA Style

Roenneberg T, Pilz LK, Zerbini G, Winnebeck EC. Chronotype and Social Jetlag: A (Self-) Critical Review. Biology. 2019; 8(3):54.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Roenneberg, Till, Luísa K. Pilz, Giulia Zerbini, and Eva C. Winnebeck. 2019. "Chronotype and Social Jetlag: A (Self-) Critical Review" Biology 8, no. 3: 54.

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