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Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Stress Responses in Alzheimer’s Disease

1,2 and 1,2,3,4,*
1
University of Kansas Alzheimer’s Disease Center, Fairway, KS 66205, USA
2
Department of Integrated and Molecular Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA
3
Department of Neurology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA
4
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biology 2019, 8(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology8020039
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 11 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Ageing and Diseases of Ageing)
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PDF [903 KB, uploaded 11 May 2019]
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Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients display widespread mitochondrial defects. Brain hypometabolism occurs alongside mitochondrial defects, and correlates well with cognitive decline. Numerous theories attempt to explain AD mitochondrial dysfunction. Groups propose AD mitochondrial defects stem from: (1) mitochondrial-nuclear DNA interactions/variations; (2) amyloid and neurofibrillary tangle interactions with mitochondria, and (3) mitochondrial quality control defects and oxidative damage. Cells respond to mitochondrial dysfunction through numerous retrograde responses including the Integrated Stress Response (ISR) involving eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). AD brains activate the ISR and we hypothesize mitochondrial defects may contribute to ISR activation. Here we review current recognized contributions of the mitochondria to AD, with an emphasis on their potential contribution to brain stress responses. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; eIF2α; metabolism; mitochondria; proteostasis; stress response Alzheimer’s disease; eIF2α; metabolism; mitochondria; proteostasis; stress response
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Weidling, I.; Swerdlow, R.H. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Stress Responses in Alzheimer’s Disease. Biology 2019, 8, 39.

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