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Mitochondrial Dysfunction in the Aging Retina

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211, USA
Biology 2019, 8(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology8020031
Received: 12 April 2019 / Revised: 4 May 2019 / Accepted: 9 May 2019 / Published: 11 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Aging and Diseases of Aging)
Mitochondria are central in retinal cell function and survival and they perform functions that are critical to cell function. Retinal neurons have high energy requirements, since large amounts of ATP are needed to generate membrane potentials and power membrane pumps. Mitochondria over the course of aging undergo a number of changes. Aged mitochondria exhibit decreased rates of oxidative phosphorylation, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and increased numbers of mtDNA mutations. Mitochondria in the neural retina and the retinal pigment epithelium are particularly susceptible to oxidative damage with aging. Many age-related retinal diseases, including glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration, have been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Therefore, mitochondria are a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of retinal disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: aging; mitochondria; retina; optic nerve; diabetic retinopathy; age-related macular degeneration; glaucoma aging; mitochondria; retina; optic nerve; diabetic retinopathy; age-related macular degeneration; glaucoma
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Eells, J.T. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in the Aging Retina. Biology 2019, 8, 31.

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