Next Article in Journal
Life Is Simple—Biologic Complexity Is an Epiphenomenon
Next Article in Special Issue
An Evolutionary Framework for Understanding the Origin of Eukaryotes
Previous Article in Journal
Differentiation of Crohn’s Disease-Associated Isolates from Other Pathogenic Escherichia coli by Fimbrial Adhesion under Shear Force
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessCommentary
Biology 2016, 5(2), 15;

The Emergence of Physiology and Form: Natural Selection Revisited

Evolutionary Medicine Program, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90502, USA
Academic Editor: Jukka Finne
Received: 17 February 2016 / Revised: 23 March 2016 / Accepted: 25 March 2016 / Published: 1 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beyond the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis- what have we missed?)
Full-Text   |   PDF [552 KB, uploaded 1 April 2016]   |  


Natural Selection describes how species have evolved differentially, but it is descriptive, non-mechanistic. What mechanisms does Nature use to accomplish this feat? One known way in which ancient natural forces affect development, phylogeny and physiology is through gravitational effects that have evolved as mechanotransduction, seen in the lung, kidney and bone, linking as molecular homologies to skin and brain. Tracing the ontogenetic and phylogenetic changes that have facilitated mechanotransduction identifies specific homologous cell-types and functional molecular markers for lung homeostasis that reveal how and why complex physiologic traits have evolved from the unicellular to the multicellular state. Such data are reinforced by their reverse-evolutionary patterns in chronic degenerative diseases. The physiologic responses of model organisms like Dictyostelium and yeast to gravity provide deep comparative molecular phenotypic homologies, revealing mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) as the final common pathway for vertical integration of vertebrate physiologic evolution; mTOR integrates calcium/lipid epistatic balance as both the proximate and ultimate positive selection pressure for vertebrate physiologic evolution. The commonality of all vertebrate structure-function relationships can be reduced to calcium/lipid homeostatic regulation as the fractal unit of vertebrate physiology, demonstrating the primacy of the unicellular state as the fundament of physiologic evolution. View Full-Text
Keywords: Natural Selection; mechanotransduction; calcium; lipid; evolution; cell-cell interaction; fractal; ultimate; proximate Natural Selection; mechanotransduction; calcium; lipid; evolution; cell-cell interaction; fractal; ultimate; proximate

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Torday, J.S. The Emergence of Physiology and Form: Natural Selection Revisited. Biology 2016, 5, 15.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Biology EISSN 2079-7737 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top