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Article

Temperatures Outside the Optimal Range for Helicobacter pylori Increase Its Harboring within Candida Yeast Cells

1
Laboratory of Bacterial Pathogenicity, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Universidad de Concepcion, Concepción 4070386, Chile
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Laboratorio Pasteur, Research and Development Area, Concepción 4030000, Chile
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Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción 4070386, Chile
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Department of Statistics, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción 4070386, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maikel P. Peppelenbosch
Biology 2021, 10(9), 915; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10090915
Received: 27 July 2021 / Revised: 3 September 2021 / Accepted: 7 September 2021 / Published: 15 September 2021
Helicobacter pylori is associated with the development of diverse gastric pathologies. This bacterium has been shown to invade yeast to protect itself from environmental factors such as changes in pH, the presence of antibiotics or variations in nutrients that affect their viability. However, intra-yeast H. pylori has been reported from other sources, including food, or when the storage temperature is outside the optimal growth range for H. pylori, which is 30–37 °C. It is necessary to continue investigating the environmental factors that participate in the entry of the bacteria into yeast. In this work, it was evaluated whether temperature changes promote the entry of H. pylori into Candida and whether this endosymbiosis favors bacterial viability. It was observed that H. pylori significantly increased its invasiveness to yeast when these two microorganisms were co-cultured under 40 °C. The results support that H. pylori invades yeasts to protect itself from stressful environments, favoring its viability in these environments. In addition, it can be suggested that this microorganism would use yeast as a transmission vehicle, thereby contributing to its dissemination in the population. However, the latter still needs to be confirmed.
Helicobacter pylori is capable of entering into yeast, but the factors driving this endosymbiosis remain unknown. This work aimed to determine if temperatures outside the optimal range for H. pylori increase its harboring within Candida. H. pylori strains were co-cultured with Candida strains in Brucella broth supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum and incubated at 4, 25, 37 or 40 °C. After co-culturing, yeasts containing bacteria-like bodies (Y-BLBs) were observed by optical microscopy, and the bacterium were identified as H. pylori by FISH. The H. pylori 16S rRNA gene was amplified from the total DNA of Y-BLBs. The viability of intra-yeast H. pylori cells was confirmed using a viability assay. All H. pylori strains were capable of entering into all Candida strains assayed. The higher percentages of Y-BLBs are obtained at 40 °C with any of the Candida strains. H pylori also increased its harboring within yeast in co-cultures incubated at 25 °C when compared to those incubated at 37 °C. In conclusion, although H. pylori grew significantly at 40 °C, this temperature increased its harboring within Candida. The endosymbiosis between both microorganisms is strain-dependent and permits bacterial cells to remain viable under the stressing environmental conditions assayed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; intracellular; Candida; stress; temperature Helicobacter pylori; intracellular; Candida; stress; temperature
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sánchez-Alonzo, K.; Arellano-Arriagada, L.; Castro-Seriche, S.; Parra-Sepúlveda, C.; Bernasconi, H.; Benavidez-Hernández, H.; Campos, V.L.; Sáez, K.; Smith, C.T.; García-Cancino, A. Temperatures Outside the Optimal Range for Helicobacter pylori Increase Its Harboring within Candida Yeast Cells. Biology 2021, 10, 915. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10090915

AMA Style

Sánchez-Alonzo K, Arellano-Arriagada L, Castro-Seriche S, Parra-Sepúlveda C, Bernasconi H, Benavidez-Hernández H, Campos VL, Sáez K, Smith CT, García-Cancino A. Temperatures Outside the Optimal Range for Helicobacter pylori Increase Its Harboring within Candida Yeast Cells. Biology. 2021; 10(9):915. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10090915

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sánchez-Alonzo, Kimberly, Luciano Arellano-Arriagada, Susana Castro-Seriche, Cristian Parra-Sepúlveda, Humberto Bernasconi, Héctor Benavidez-Hernández, Víctor L. Campos, Katia Sáez, Carlos T. Smith, and Apolinaria García-Cancino. 2021. "Temperatures Outside the Optimal Range for Helicobacter pylori Increase Its Harboring within Candida Yeast Cells" Biology 10, no. 9: 915. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10090915

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