Next Article in Journal
Thermal and Oxygen Flight Sensitivity in Ageing Drosophila melanogaster Flies: Links to Rapamycin-Induced Cell Size Changes
Next Article in Special Issue
Coexpression of Fungal Cell Wall-Modifying Enzymes Reveals Their Additive Impact on Arabidopsis Resistance to the Fungal Pathogen, Botrytis cinerea
Previous Article in Journal
An Automated In-Depth Feature Learning Algorithm for Breast Abnormality Prognosis and Robust Characterization from Mammography Images Using Deep Transfer Learning
Previous Article in Special Issue
Photodegradation of Biohazardous Dye Brilliant Blue R Using Organometallic Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized through a Green Chemistry Method
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:

Pectins and Olive Pectins: From Biotechnology to Human Health

Maria C. Millan-Linares
Sergio Montserrat-de la Paz
2,* and
Maria E. Martin
Department of Food & Health, Instituto de la Grasa, CSIC. Ctra. de Utrera Km. 1, 41013 Seville, Spain
Department of Medical Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Immunology, School of Medicine, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Sanchez Pizjuan s/n, 41009 Seville, Spain
Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biology, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Seville, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biology 2021, 10(9), 860;
Submission received: 27 July 2021 / Revised: 25 August 2021 / Accepted: 25 August 2021 / Published: 2 September 2021



Simple Summary

Pectins comprise complex polysaccharides rich in galacturonic acid, that exert many functions in higher plants as components of the cell walls, together with cellulose or lignin. The food industry has traditionally used pectins as an additive due to their gelling or thickening properties. Pharmaceutical research is also taking advantage of pectin bioactivity, providing evidence of the role of these polysaccharides as health promoters. Fruits and vegetables are natural sources of pectins that can be obtained as by-products during food or beverage production. In line with this, the aim of our study is gathering data on the current methods to extract pectins from fruit or vegetable wastes, optimizing yield and environmentally friendly protocols. Updated information about pectin applications in food or non-food industries are provided. We also point to olives as novel source of pectins that strengthen the evidence that this fruit is as remarkably healthy part of the Mediterranean diet. This work exhibits the need to explore natural bioactive components of our daily intake to improve our health, or prevent or treat chronical diseases present in our society.


Pectins are a component of the complex heteropolysaccharide mixture present in the cell wall of higher plants. Structurally, the pectin backbone includes galacturonic acid to which neutral sugars are attached, resulting in functional regions in which the esterification of residues is crucial. Pectins influence many physiological processes in plants and are used industrially for both food and non-food applications. Pectin-based compounds are also a promising natural source of health-beneficial bioactive molecules. The properties of pectins have generated interest in the extraction of these polysaccharides from natural sources using environmentally friendly protocols that maintain the native pectin structure. Many fruit by-products are sources of pectins; however, owing to the wide range of applications in various fields, novel plants are now being explored as potential sources. Olives, the fruit of the olive tree, are consumed as part of the healthy Mediterranean diet or processed into olive oil. Pectins from olives have recently emerged as promising compounds with health-beneficial effects. This review details the current knowledge on the structure of pectins and describes the conventional and novel techniques of pectin extraction. The versatile properties of pectins, which make them promising bioactive compounds for industry and health promotion, are also considered.

1. Introduction

Pectins are present in the primary cell walls and middle lamellae in higher plants within a complex heteropolysaccharide matrix, which contains up to 30% pectins together with cellulose and hemicellulose [1,2] resulting in networks due to linkages among them. Carbohydrates are the major components of the cell wall, which contain only 5–10% of proteins, including extensins and arabinogalactan proteins [3,4]; all are modified during fruit ripening. Despite the diversity of their chemical composition across species and tissues, pectins are known to play a key role in plant tissue firmness and plant development, modulating the properties of the cell wall and cell functions. In plant tissues, pectins in the middle lamella also contribute to cell-to-cell adhesion and act as a barrier against pathogens [3,5,6]. Many studies have also highlighted the interaction between pectin chains and the cellulose-hemicellulose network [1,4,7,8,9,10,11,12,13].
Pectin polysaccharides have been extensively used as a functional ingredient in the food industry and also in non-food industries during the production of cosmetics, packaging materials or pharmaceuticals. Over the last few years, several studies point to an increasing interest in pectins as health-promoting molecules for biomedical applications. Nevertheless, it is well established that pectin extraction methods strongly influence the structure and properties of these polysaccharides [1,14]. This review summarizes current knowledge concerning pectin sources and extraction protocols. Additionally, we provide evidence that olive fruits may be a promising natural source of bioactive pectic polysaccharides obtained during olive oil production, which also valorize traditional industrial by-products or wastes.

Pectins from Olives

Cultivation of Olea europaea L. (the olive tree) dates back more than 7000 years [15] and is widespread, owing to the continually increasing demand for both table olives and olive oil for human consumption. Globally, the Mediterranean region is the largest cultivator of olive trees, responsible for 98% of the world’s production; moreover, the so-called “Mediterranean diet” includes olive oil, which is a remarkable healthy fat known to have cardioprotective and anticancer activity [16]. In addition, high-value compounds’ unexpected bioactivities have been identified from different parts of the olive (fruits and leaves) and in waste materials produced during olive oil extraction [17,18]. The increased attraction of renewable bioresources has stimulated research into the recovery of potential health-beneficial products from olive trees. Nevertheless, the quality of both the olive fruit and olive oil is affected by ripeness, cultivar, harvest conditions, and processing technology [15].
The olive fruit contains three different regions: the external skin or epicarp, which contains wax; a soft pulp or mesocarp; and a hard stone or endocarp. Water (50%), oil (22%), and carbohydrates (19%) are the major components, with lower proportions of cellulose (6%), proteins (1.6%), phenols (1–3%), and inorganic chemicals (1.5%) present. Minor compounds, including pectic polysaccharides, organic acids, and pigments, are also present in the olive fruit. Olive oil is considered a “functional food” as it contains oleic acid, other monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), phenolic compounds, and other minor bioactive molecules [15]. Phenolic compounds are already known to have remarkable health-promoting activities, and recent research into the bioactive properties of many fruits and vegetables has focused on pectins as a medicinal and therapeutic novel target [15].

2. Structure, Quantification, and Qualification

2.1. Pectins

Pectins are complex heteropolysaccharides, which include at least 17 kinds of monosaccharides and over 20 types of linkages, with a backbone of α-1,4-D-galacturonic acid (70%) in which homogalacturonan (HG), rhamnogalacturonan (RG-I and RG-II), and xylogalacturonan (XG) domains, linked by covalent or ionic interactions, can be distinguished [14,19]. Homogalacturonan linear domain monosaccharides are partially C-6 methyl-esterified and may be C-2/3 O-acetylated in some plant sources, and the degree of esterification is a parameter that affects pectin functionality [20]. This “smooth region” of HG is the most abundant pectin domain (comprising 60–65%) in plant cell pectins [19] and has been recently related to epidermal morphogenesis in plants [21]. The “hairy” regions of pectin molecules include both RG-I and RG-II, to which nonionic side chains containing many neutral sugars are attached [22]. RG-I domains include rhamnose residues in the galacturonic acid backbone with many side chains containing other neutral sugars, such as galactose or arabinose [8]. It is well established that the monosaccharide composition and architecture of both HG and RG-I domains vary significatively during plant development [23]. Only little structure variations in pectin RG-I domains have been reported in different plants [24]. RG-II is a much more complex domain, in which up to 12 types of sugar may be present, including the rarely observed apiose, xylose, or fucose [24]. Despite only being a minor region in pectin, RG-II is well preserved in different plant species and plays a key role in the cell wall structure [8,22,24]. The xylogalacturonan domain is present in many storage and reproductive plant tissues [25].
Many models have been proposed to explain the macromolecular structure of pectins in which polysaccharides are covalently bound, but the precise position of the attached hairy and smooth regions is still under debate [1,2,19]. The isolation and determination of pectin components have been extensively assessed to identify the design of plant cell wall networks in which pectins are also bound to cellulose and hemicellulose (Figure 1).

2.2. Olive Pectins

The industrial production of olive oil generates huge quantities of a wet organic matter commonly known as olive pomace, composed of 60–70% water and containing 98% of the total phenols in the olive fruit, known for their beneficial properties for health [27]. Pectic polysaccharides comprise approximately 39% of this wet olive pomace. The degree of methyl esterification is approximately 48% and the degree of acetylation is approximately 11%. Compared to citrus commercially available low-methoxyl-pectins, olive pomace pectin extracts show a higher degree of methyl-esterification, acetylation, and total neutral sugar content, but a lower galacturonic acid percentage or molecular weight [27]. The presence of arabinan-rich pectic polysaccharides in olive pomace is notable, and its quantification is a parameter to evaluate the ripeness of the olive fruits [27]. These agricultural wastes therefore appear to be an interesting source of health-beneficial biomolecules that can be recovered to yield environmental and economic benefits [25].
Many studies have focused on the cell wall modifications of fleshy fruits during ripening. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic activities alter the polysaccharide structures of hemicellulose and pectins and may even cause variation in the textures between cultivars [28]. However, very little is currently known about these chemical modifications during modification in olive fruits [6,29,30,31,32,33]. Some studies indicate a key role for gene expression, increased enzyme activities, and the loss of neutral sugars during maturation in the solubilization and rearrangements in olive cell wall pectins [20].

3. Extraction

3.1. Pectins

Historically, pectins have been extracted from vegetables and fruits during food processing (Table 1). The by-products from juice production, such as apple pomace (14%) [34] and citrus peel (85%) [35], are the most useful sources of commercial pectins [2]. Among citrus fruits, the peels of orange [36], lemon, lime, and grapefruit [37] are rich in pectins. The wastes from tomato, carrot, and pumpkin have been used for pectin extraction. Sugar beet pulps [38], potatoes, sunflower seed heads, cocoa husks, mulberry branch barks, bean hulls, sisal wastes, watermelon rinds, pomegranate, pineapple, mango, papaya, passion fruit [39], or banana peels [40], and kiwifruit pomace, are novel sources of plant pectins [1,14,22,25,41,42,43] (Table 2).
From the raw biomass, the industrial process of extraction requires pre-extraction protocols, followed by hydrolysis and isolation of pectins and post-extraction solubilization. Pretreatment processes include drying, washing or blanching and aim to inactivate enzymes or bacteria that preserve stability of material and prevent deterioration of pectic polysaccharides [1,14,24,42].
Both single digestions and combined methods have been used extensively for pectin extraction [1,14,24,42]. Single extraction methods use acid or alkali solutions in addition to enzyme treatments to release pectins from the cell wall, where it forms complex networks with cellulose and hemicellulose. The use of chemicals is more economic than enzyme hydrolysis, although alkali extraction achieves high yields but results in environmental pollution. Acid extraction combines a high temperature and a strong mineral acid, such as hydrochloric, sulfuric, or nitric acid. Organic acids, such as citric or acetic acid, may preserve the native pectin structure compared with other acids [14].
Pulsed electric field extraction or the use of hot water or chelating agents, such as oxalate or sodium hexametaphosphate, are also single extraction methods [1,45]. A pulsed electric field applies a high voltage during a short time to a food product, increasing cell membrane permeability and facilitating bioactive molecules release [45]. Nevertheless, these protocols are time- and energy-consuming, with low extraction yields and inadequate pectin quality or functionality, as well as environmental disadvantages due to contaminants generated [14,46]. However, the structure and properties of pectins are influenced by the extraction method; thus, there is a need to find novel extraction techniques that achieve the optimal yield and quality of the by-products generated and the isolated pectic polysaccharide products [42]. Accordingly, combined techniques using subcritical water-, ultrasound-, microwave-, or ultrasonic/microwave-assisted protocols are promising approaches for pectin extraction [1]. They aim to improve the quality and the yield when extracting natural compounds from biological materials without increasing the economic or environmental impact [14,42]. Subcritical water is an alternative solvent consisting of liquid water at an elevated pressure able to achieve very high temperatures, over the boiling point, without a change of phase. Higher temperatures reduce the strength of hydrogen bonds and the energy required to disrupt complex interactions in cell walls [1,42]. Subcritical water protocols and ultrasound- or microwave-assisted methods shorten pectin extraction times and achieve high yields, although the use of subcritical water is relatively expensive [1]. Although the ultrasonic/microwave-assisted methods are limited by the equipment required, remarkable yields have been obtained. Promising results have been reported with novel combined procedures, such as array-induced-voltage-assisted extraction or surfactant-mediated pectin extraction [1] (Figure 2). Array-induced-voltage protocol applies a voltage in an acidic medium generating electromigration of charged solutes that interact with each other. Pectins can then be released from cell walls and intercellular spaces [1]. On the other hand, surfactant-mediated techniques take advantage of micelles generation at a certain surfactant concentration and the variety of interactions that micelles can stablish with pectin polysaccharides [1].
The final purification of the extracted pectins can be performed by several techniques. Precipitation of the extracted material, alone or in combination with filtration, dialysis, ionic exchange, or nitration, are some examples of accepted methods [14,24] (Table 3). As already mentioned, it is noteworthy the relationship between the complete extraction process and the chemical structure of final purified pectins.

3.2. Olive Pectins

At present, two-phase extraction is preferred in the olive oil industry as it reduces the consumption of water and the generation of liquid pollution. The resulting solid phase includes water and vegetable mass and is commonly known as “wet olive pomace” [15,27]. Pectins are minor compounds in the olive fruit but comprise up to 35% of the olive pomace during processing [25,27], depending on the ripening stage and other factors related to cultivar conditions and olive variety [33,47,48]. Few data available (Table 4) prevent a comprehensive understanding of the changes in the olive pulp cell wall polysaccharides during ripening in different cultivars. In general, olive maturity entails higher oil content but lower pectin content, in which molecules become more soluble and branched and exhibit a lower degree of esterification [27,48]. Pectin degradations appear to be caused by enzymatic activities, though it has also been demonstrated that new polysaccharides can be produced during ripening.
Pectins can be extracted from olive pomace as an “alcohol-insoluble residue” (AIR), which also includes additional cell wall materials such as cellulose, hemicellulose or proteins [33] (Table 4). Conventional methods already described, such as high temperature or acid solvents, have been used extensively in extraction protocols [47,49,50]. Some data point to low molecular weight pectins as bioactive compounds and, accordingly, hydrothermal treatment has appeared as a promising technology for the production and solubilization of pectins from olive pomace, as temperature is a critical parameter for maintaining the bioactivity of pectin [51,52]. Regarding the million tons of olive pomace produced every year by the olive oil industry, this by-product appears to be a noteworthy source of bioactive molecules, including pectic polysaccharides.

4. Industrial Applications

4.1. Pectins

To isolate health-promoting pectins from plants, many strategies have recently been studied to develop functional foods [24,53,54,55]. Nevertheless, extensive in vivo research is required to confirm the bioavailability of pectin oligosaccharides in both animal and human diets; and, as already stated, food and non-food industries may need to consider that the extraction method influences both the physicochemical markers and the bioactivity of pectins [1].
Pectins have been used historically as additives in the food industry, including gelling, emulsifying, and stabilizing agents, as well as texture or thickness modulators, and fat-replacing components [22,54]. They have good biocompatibility and biodegradability, lack toxicity, and contribute to our dietary soluble fibers as no enzymatic digestion pectins occur in the human upper gut [22]. Nevertheless, some properties of pectins are strongly influenced by the number and localization of the esterified residues in the homogalacturonan region of the molecule [8]. Consequently, high-methylesterified (HM, 60–80%) and low-methylesterified (LM, 30–40%) pectins are suitable gelling agents for various products. Vegetable jellies include LM pectins, whereas other jellies, marmalade, mayonnaise, juices, or canned fish include HM pectins, which are more suitable for gelation [22,43].
The properties of pectins are also used in non-food industries, such as the pharmaceutical or cosmetics industry. As an emulsifier or thickening agent, pectins are present in cosmetic products and they are also useful as delivery vehicles for genes [50] or drugs [22,56,57,58]. Other industrial applications suggest that pectin-containing polymers are suitable for the preparation of biomaterials for various purposes [22] (Table 5).
It should be noted that not only the degree of esterification, but the pectin conformation, monosaccharide composition, and molecular weight are also strongly influenced by the extraction method [1]. Further research should be undertaken to optimize the pectin-based products of industrial interest.

4.2. Olive Pectins

Olive pomace polysaccharides have an 11% (acetyl)–48% (methyl) low degree of esterification, which points to the gelling potential as a food ingredient of this by-product in oil production [25]. What is more, in the presence of calcium, olive pomace pectins are able to form elastic gels more resistant to high temperatures than those commercial low-methoxyl-pectin/calcium gels [27]. The emulsifying activity of olive pomace polysaccharides has been proven compared with traditional sources of pectins [52].

5. Bioactivity

5.1. Pectins

New ventures to find natural sources of pectins in plants have the potential to expand what is known about vegetal polysaccharides as bioactive compounds that are available in large quantities but are still considered as waste. Many biomaterials are based on the pectin molecule, and many studies have assessed the efficiency of pectins as wound-healing agents [77] or in tissue engineering [22,78,79]. Pectins are a common dietary source of oligosaccharides from fruits and vegetables that are fermented in the colon by the gut microbiota. Promising activities include bactericidal, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory [80,81], antioxidant, cardioprotective, probiotic [82], cholesterol [83], serum glucose-reducing [84], and intestinal and obesity regulator [25,77,85] functions for pectin oligosaccharides. Moreover, low molecular weight fragments from pectins exhibit antitumoral activities [25,86,87,88,89,90]. Recent studies have also pointed to the importance of fruit and vegetables as an important source of pectin molecules containing the RG-I domain [23,91] (Table 6).
As previously stated, some health-beneficial functions of pectins are known to be strongly affected by the extraction technique, with changes in the immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, or probiotic activities of pectins [1].

5.2. Olive Pectins

The chemical composition of olive fruits varies depending on the cultivar, environmental conditions, and the maturation from green to black fruits. Many studies have provided data concerning olive phenols [113], but despite the importance of pectin transformation in the cell wall, there is little published research on this topic [6,15,25,33].
As already stated, the olive pomace resulting from olive oil production has been described as a valuable source of olive pectins [27]. Given the economic and environmental relevance of olive cultivars and the increasing popularity of natural, bioactive, and healthy phytochemicals, olive pectin extracts are a potential new complement for both nutrition and health improvement that support research into the composition and distribution of olives [15].
Polysaccharide-enriched extracts from olive pomace have shown health-promoting activities in in vitro experiments, including those related to antioxidant behavior and the regulation of glucose or lipid metabolism compared with commercial pectins [52]. There are promising results demonstrating the antitumoral activity of pectin extracts from olive oil by-products [90].

6. Conclusions

This work aims to gather current knowledge regarding pectin polysaccharides, essential components of plant cell walls that play key roles in plant development and physiology. Food and non-food industries have taken advantage of pectin bioactivity, exhibiting the need of exploring new sources of natural pectins from fruits and vegetables. Novel extraction methods, optimizing both yield and quality of pectins obtained, as well as unexplored plants for pectin recovery during food processing, require further investigation. Since pectin molecules exhibit promising health-promoting properties, further research should be undertaken to reach the goal of producing pectin bioactive components and, at the same time, valorize traditional agroindustry by-products considered as wastes. In line with this, olive fruit appears as a remarkable source of natural pectins, containing many known healthy unsaturated fatty acids from an outstanding economic impact cultivar around the Mediterranean basin. Our study points out that the challenge from now on is optimizing pectin production from industrial by-products based on novel fruits or vegetables and explore bioactivity of pectin components that may lead to nutraceuticals or functional foods able to improve our health and even prevent chronical diseases. To the best of our knowledge, our review highlights for the first time the need of research regarding olive fruit pectins as potential molecules involved in human health promotion. Although olives are known as part of the healthy Mediterranean diet due to their bioactive components, we show that only a few studies have focused on the activities of pectins from olive fruit. This study emphasizes as a novelty the importance of olives as natural sources of pectin polysaccharides in combination with the valorization of by-products or wastes from industrial processes such as olive oil production.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, M.C.M.-L. and M.E.M.; writing—original draft preparation, M.E.M. and S.M.-d.l.P.; funding acquisition, M.C.M.-L. and S.M.-d.l.P. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research received no external funding.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

Not applicable.


This study was supported by VI PPIT-US (University of Seville).

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. Cui, J.; Zhao, C.; Feng, L.; Han, Y.; Du, H.; Xiao, H.; Zheng, J. Pectins from fruits: Relationships between extraction methods, structural characteristics, and functional properties. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2021, 110, 39–54. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  2. Zdunek, A.; Pieczywek, P.M.; Cybulska, J. The primary, secondary, and structures of higher levels of pectin polysaccharides. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 2021, 20, 1101–1117. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  3. Uluisik, S.; Seymour, G.B. Pectate lyases: Their role in plants and importance in fruit ripening. Food Chem. 2020, 309, 125559. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  4. Voiniciuc, C.; Pauly, M.; Usadel, B. Monitoring polysaccharide dynamics in the plant cell wall. Plant Physiol. 2018, 176, 2590–2600. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  5. Saffer, A.M. Expanding roles for pectins in plant development. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 2018, 60, 910–923. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  6. Parra, R.; Paredes, M.A.; Labrador, J.; Nunes, C.; Coimbra, M.A.; Fernandez-Garcia, N.; Olmos, E.; Gallardo, M.; Gomez-Jimenez, M.C. Cellwall composition andultrastructural immunolocalization of pectin and arabinogalactan protein during olea europaea l. fruit abscission. Plant Cell Physiol. 2020, 61, 814–825. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  7. Cosgrove, D.J. Diffuse growth of plant cell walls. Plant Physiol. 2018, 176, 16–27. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  8. Liu, J.; Bi, J.; McClements, D.J.; Liu, X.; Yi, J.; Lyu, J.; Zhou, M.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.; Wu, X.; et al. Impacts of thermal and non-thermal processing on structure and functionality of pectin in fruit- and vegetable- based products: A review. Carbohydr. Polym. 2020, 250, 116890. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  9. Fu, J.; Mort, A. Progress towards identifying a covalent cross-link between xyloglucan and rhamnogalacturonan in cotton cell walls. Plant Physiol. 1997, 114S, 83. [Google Scholar]
  10. Vidal, S.; Williams, P.; Doco, T.; Moutounet, M.; Pellerin, P. The polysaccharides of red wine: Total fractionation and characterization. Carbohydr. Polym. 2003, 54, 439–447. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  11. Abdel-Massih, R.M.; Baydoun, E.A.-H.; Brett, C.T. In vitro biosynthesis of 1,4-b-galactan attached to a pectin–xyloglucan complex in pea. Planta 2003, 216, 502–511. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  12. Popper, Z.A.; Fry, S.C. Xyloglucan–pectin linkages are formed intra-protoplasmically, contribute to wall-assembly, and remain stable in the cell wall. Planta 2008, 227, 781–794. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  13. Femenia, A.; Rigby, N.M.; Selvendran, R.R.; Waldron, K.W. Investigation of the occurrence of pectic-xylan–xyloglucan complexes in cell walls of cauliflower stem tissues. Carbohydr. Res. 1999, 39, 151–164. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  14. Marić, M.; Grassino, A.N.; Zhu, Z.; Barba, F.J.; Brnčić, M.; Rimac Brnčić, S. An overview of the traditional and innovative approaches for pectin extraction from plant food wastes and by-products: Ultrasound-, microwaves-, and enzyme-assisted extraction. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2018, 76, 28–37. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  15. Ghanbari, R.; Anwar, F.; Alkharfy, K.M.; Gilani, A.H.; Saari, N. Valuable nutrients and functional bioactives in different parts of olive (Olea europaea L.)—A review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 3291–3340. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  16. Jimenez-Lopez, C.; Carpena, M.; Lourenço-Lopes, C.; Gallardo-Gomez, M.; Lorenzo, J.M.; Barba, F.J.; Prieto, M.A.; Simal-Gandara, J. Bioactive Compounds and Quality of Extra Virgin Olive Oil. Foods 2020, 9, 1014. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Tapia-Quirós, P.; Montenegro-Landívar, M.F.; Reig, M.; Vecino, X.; Alvarino, T.; Cortina, J.L.; Saurina, J.; Granados, M. Olive Mill and Winery Wastes as Viable Sources of Bioactive Compounds: A Study on Polyphenols Recovery. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 1074. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  18. Ribeiro, T.B.; Oliveira, A.; Coelho, M.; Veiga, M.; Costa, E.M.; Silva, S.; Nunes, J.; Vicente, A.A.; Pintado, M. Are olive pomace powders a safe source of bioactives and nutrients? J. Sci. Food Agric. 2021, 101, 1963–1978. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  19. Christiaens, S.; Van Buggenhout, S.; Houben, K.; Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Z.; Moelants, K.R.N.; Ngouémazong, E.D.; Van Loey, A.; Hendrickx, M.E.G. Process–Structure–Function Relations of Pectin in Food. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 2016, 56, 1021–1042. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. Levesque-Tremblay, G.; Pelloux, J.; Braybrook, S.A.; Müller, K. Tuning of pectin methylesterification: Consequences for cell wall biomechanics and development. Planta 2015, 242, 791–811. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Haas, K.T.; Wightman, R.; Meyerowitz, E.M.; Peaucelle, A. Pectin homogalacturonan nanofilament expansion drives morphogenesis in plant epidermal cells. Science 2020, 367, 1003–1007. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  22. Noreen, A.; Nazli, Z.I.H.; Akram, J.; Rasul, I.; Mansha, A.; Yaqoob, N.; Iqbal, R.; Tabasum, S.; Zuber, M.; Zia, K.M. Pectins functionalized biomaterials; a new viable approach for biomedical applications: A review. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2017, 101, 254–272. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Wu, D.; Zheng, J.; Mao, G.; Hu, W.; Ye, X.; Linhardt, R.J.; Chen, S. Rethinking the impact of RG-I mainly from fruits and vegetables on dietary health. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 2020, 60, 2938–2960. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  24. Dranca, F.; Oroian, M. Extraction, purification and characterization of pectin from alternative sources with potential technological applications. Food Res. Int. 2018, 113, 327–350. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Babbar, N.; Dejonghe, W.; Gatti, M.; Sforza, S.; Elst, K. Pectic oligosaccharides from agricultural by-products: Production, characterization and health benefits. Crit. Rev. Biotechnol. 2016, 36, 594–606. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Bokov, D.O.; Sharipova, R.I.; Potanina, O.G.; Nikulin, A.V.; Nasser, R.A.; Samylina, I.A.; Bessonov, V.V. Polysaccharides of crude herbal drugs as a group of biologically active compounds in the field of modern pharmacognosy: Physicochemical properties, classification, pharmacopoeial analysis. Proteins 2020, 2, 4–6. [Google Scholar]
  27. Coimbra, M.A.; Cardoso, S.M.; Lopes-Da-Silva, J.A. Olive pomace, a source for valuable Arabinan-rich pectic polysaccharides. In Carbohydrates in Sustainable Development I. Topics in Current Chemistry; Rauter, A., Vogel, P., Queneau, Y., Eds.; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2010; Volume 294, pp. 129–141. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  28. Goulao, L.F.; Oliveira, C.M. Cell wall modifications during fruit ripening: When a fruit is not the fruit. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2008, 19, 4–25. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  29. Fernández-Bolaños, J.; Heredia, A.; Vioque, B.; Castellano, J.M.; Guillén, R. Changes in cell-wall-degrading enzyme activities in stored olives in relation to respiration and ethylene production: Influence of exogenous ethylene. Z. Fur Leb. Unters. Und Forsch. 1997, 204, 293–299. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  30. Vierhuis, E.; Schols, H.A.; Beldman, G.; Voragen, A.G.J. Isolation and characterization of cell wall material from olive fruit (Olea europaea cv koroneiki) at different ripening stages. Carbohydr. Polym. 2000, 43, 11–21. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  31. Mafra, I.; Lanza, B.; Reis, A.; Marsilio, V.; Campestre, C.; De Angelis, M.; Coimbra, M.A. Effect of ripening on texture, microstructure and cell wall polysaccharide composition of olive fruit (Olea europaea). Physiol. Plant. 2001, 111, 439–447. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  32. Parra, R.; Paredes, M.A.; Sanchez-Calle, I.M.; Gomez-Jimenez, M.C. Comparative transcriptional profiling analysis of olive ripe-fruit pericarp and abscission zone tissues shows expression differences and distinct patterns of transcriptional regulation. BMC Genom. 2013, 14, 866. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  33. Diarte, C.; Iglesias, A.; Romero, A.; Casero, T.; Ninot, A.; Gatius, F.; Graell, J.; Lara, I. Ripening-related cell wall modifications in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruit: A survey of nine genotypes. Food Chem. 2021, 338, 127754. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. Wang, S.; Chen, F.; Wu, J.; Wang, Z.; Liao, X.; Hu, X. Optimization of pectin extraction assisted by microwave from apple pomace using response surface methodology. J. Food Eng. 2007, 78, 693–700. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  35. Pasandide, B.; Khodaiyan, F.; Mousavi, Z.E.; Hosseini, S.S. Optimization of aqueous pectin extraction from Citrus medica peel. Carbohydr. Polym. 2017, 178, 27–33. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  36. Guo, X.; Han, D.; Xi, H.; Rao, L.; Liao, X.; Hu, X.; Wu, J. Extraction of pectin from navel orange peel assisted by ultra-high pressure, microwave or traditional heating: A comparison. Carbohydr. Polym. 2012, 88, 441–448. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  37. Wang, W.; Ma, X.; Jiang, P.; Hu, L.; Zhi, Z.; Chen, J.; Ding, T.; Ye, X.; Liu, D. Characterization of pectin from grapefruit peel: A comparison of ultrasound-assisted and conventional heating extractions. Food Hydrocoll. 2016, 61, 730–739. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  38. Huang, X.; Li, D.; Wang, L. jun Characterization of pectin extracted from sugar beet pulp under different drying conditions. J. Food Eng. 2017, 211, 1–6. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  39. Seixas, F.L.; Fukuda, D.L.; Turbiani, F.R.B.; Garcia, P.S.; Petkowicz, C.L.D.O.; Jagadevan, S.; Gimenes, M.L. Extraction of pectin from passion fruit peel (Passiflora edulis f.flavicarpa) by microwave-induced heating. Food Hydrocoll. 2014, 38, 186–192. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  40. Swamy, G.J.; Muthukumarappan, K. Optimization of continuous and intermittent microwave extraction of pectin from banana peels. Food Chem. 2017, 220, 108–114. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. Methacanon, P.; Krongsin, J.; Gamonpilas, C. Pomelo (Citrus maxima) pectin: Effects of extraction parameters andits properties. Food Hydrocoll. 2014, 35, 383–391. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  42. Adetunji, L.R.; Adekunle, A.; Orsat, V.; Raghavan, V. Advances in the pectin production process using novel extraction techniques: A review. Food Hydrocoll. 2017, 62, 239–250. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  43. Shakhmatov, E.G.; Toukach, P.V.; Makarova, E.N. Structural studies of the pectic polysaccharide from fruits of Punica granatum. Carbohydr. Polym. 2020, 235, 115978. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  44. Picot-Allain, M.C.N.; Ramasawmy, B.; Emmambux, M.N. Extraction, Characterisation, and Application of Pectin from Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits: A Review. Food Rev. Int. 2020. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  45. Nowacka, M.; Tappi, S.; Wiktor, A.; Rybak, K.; Miszczykowska, A.; Czyzewski, J.; Drozdzal, K.; Witrowa-Rajchert, D.; Tylewicz, U. The Impact of Pulsed Electric Field on the Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Beetroot. Foods 2019, 7, 244. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  46. Khedmat, L.; Izadi, A.; Mofid, V.; Mojtahedi, S.Y. Recent advances in extracting pectin by single and combined ultrasound techniques: A review of techno-functional and bioactive health-promoting aspects. Carbohydr. Polym. 2020, 229, 115474. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  47. Jiménez, A.; Rodríguez, R.; Ferriáhdez-Caro, I.; Guillén, R.; Fernández-Bolaños, J.; Heredia, A. Olive fruit cell wall: Degradation of peptic polysaccharides during ripening. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2001, 49, 409–415. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  48. Moustakime, Y.; Hazzoumi, Z.; Joutei, K.A. Effect of proteolytic activities in combination with the pectolytic activities on extractability of the fat and phenolic compounds from olives. SpringerPlus 2016, 5, 739. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  49. Sánchez-Romero, C.; Guillén, R.; Heredia, A.; Jiménez, A.; Fernández-Bolaños, J. Degradation of pectic polysaccharides in pickled green olives. J. Food Prot. 1998, 61, 78–86. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  50. Vierhuis, E.; Korver, M.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J. Structural characteristics of pectic polysaccharides from olive fruit (Olea europaea cv moraiolo) in relation to processing for oil extraction. Carbohydr. Polym. 2003, 51, 135–148. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  51. Lama-Muñoz, A.; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, G.; Rubio-Senent, F.; Fernández-Bolaños, J. Production, characterization and isolation of neutral and pectic oligosaccharides with low molecular weights from olive by-products thermally treated. Food Hydrocoll. 2012, 28, 92–104. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  52. Rubio-Senent, F.; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, G.; Lama-Muñoz, A.; Fernández-Bolaños, J. Pectin extracted from thermally treated olive oil by-products: Characterization, physico-chemical properties, invitro bile acid andglucose binding. Food Hydrocoll. 2015, 43, 311–321. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  53. Gullón, B.; Gómez, B.; Martínez-Sabajanes, M.; Yáñez, R.; Parajó, J.C.; Alonso, J.L. Pectic oligosaccharides: Manufacture and functional properties. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2013, 30, 153–161. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  54. Naqash, F.; Masoodi, F.A.; Rather, S.A.; Wani, S.M.; Gani, A. Emerging concepts in the nutraceutical and functional properties of pectin—A Review. Carbohydr. Polym. 2017, 168, 227–239. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  55. Holck, J.; Hotchkiss, A.T.; Meyer, A.S.; Mikkelsen, J.D.; Rastall, R.A. 5 Production and Bioactivity of Pectic Oligosaccharides from Fruit and Vegetable Biomass. Prod. Anal. Bioactivity 2014, 76–87. [Google Scholar]
  56. Katav, T.; Liu, L.S.; Traitel, T.; Goldbart, R.; Wolfson, M.; Kost, J. Modified pectin-based carrier for gene delivery: Cellular barriers in gene delivery course. J. Control. Release 2008, 130, 183–191. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  57. Smistad, G.; Bøyum, S.; Alund, S.J.; Samuelsen, A.B.C.; Hiorth, M. The potential of pectin as a stabilizer for liposomal drug delivery systems. Carbohydr. Polym. 2012, 90, 1337–1344. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  58. Rehman, A.; Ahmad, T.; Aadil, R.M.; Spotti, M.J.; Bakry, A.M.; Khan, I.M.; Zhao, L.; Riaz, T.; Tong, Q. Pectin polymers as wall materials for the nano-encapsulation of bioactive compounds. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2019, 90, 35–46. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  59. Lara-Espinoza, C.; Carvajal-Millán, E.; Balandrán-Quintana, R.; López-Franco, Y.; Rascón-Chu, A. Pectin and pectin-based composite materials: Beyond food texture. Molecules 2018, 23, 942. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  60. Nešić, A.; Onjia, A.; Davidović, S.; Dimitrijević, S.; Errico, M.E.; Santagata, G.; Malinconico, M. Design of pectin-sodium alginate based films for potential healthcare application: Study of chemico-physical interactions between the components of films and assessment of their antimicrobial activity. Carbohydr. Polym. 2017, 157, 981–990. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  61. Wong, T.W.; Colombo, G.; Sonvico, F. Pectin matrix as oral drug delivery vehicle for colon cancer treatment. AAPS PharmSciTech 2011, 12, 201–214. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  62. Krivorotova, T.; Staneviciene, R.; Luksa, J.; Serviene, E.; Sereikaite, J. Preparation and characterization of nisin-loaded pectin-inulin particles as antimicrobials. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 2016, 72, 518–524. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  63. Zhang, T.; Lan, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Liu, F.; Zhao, D.; Mayo, K.H.; Zhou, Y.; Tai, G. Identification of the bioactive components from pH-modified citrus pectin and their inhibitory effects on galectin-3 function. Food Hydrocoll. 2016, 58, 113–119. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  64. Dash, K.K.; Ali, N.A.; Das, D.; Mohanta, D. Thorough evaluation of sweet potato starch and lemon-waste pectin based-edible films with nano-titania inclusions for food packaging applications. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2019, 139, 449–458. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  65. Lourenço, S.C.; Fraqueza, M.J.; Fernandes, M.H.; Moldão-Martins, M.; Alves, V.D. Application of edible alginate films with pineapple peel active compounds on beef meat preservation. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 667. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  66. Grassino, A.N.; Halambek, J.; Djaković, S.; Rimac Brnčić, S.; Dent, M.; Grabarić, Z. Utilization of tomato peel waste from canning factory as a potential source for pectin production and application as tin corrosion inhibitor. Food Hydrocoll. 2016, 52, 265–274. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  67. Zhang, W.; Song, J.; He, Q.; Wang, H.; Lyu, W.; Feng, H.; Xiong, W.; Guo, W.; Wu, J.; Chen, L. Novel pectin based composite hydrogel derived from grapefruit peel for enhanced Cu(II) removal. J. Hazard. Mater. 2020, 384, 121445. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  68. Khan, A.A.; Randhawa, M.A.; Karim, R.; Ahmed, W. Extraction and characterization of pectin from grapefruit (Duncan cultivar) and its utilization as gelling agent. Int. Food Res. J. 2014, 21, 2195. [Google Scholar]
  69. Gharibzahedi, S.M.T.; Smith, B.; Guo, Y. Ultrasound-microwave assisted extraction of pectin from fig (Ficus carica L.) skin: Optimization, characterization and bioactivity. Carbohydr. Polym. 2019, 222, 114992. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  70. Liu, L.S.; Fishman, M.L.; Kost, J.; Hicks, K.B. Pectin-based systems for colon-specific drug delivery via oral route. Biomaterials 2003, 24, 3333–3343. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  71. Kusrini, E.; Wicaksono, W.; Gunawan, C.; Daud, N.Z.A.; Usman, A. Kinetics, mechanism, and thermodynamics of lanthanum adsorption on pectin extracted from durian rind. J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 2018, 6, 6580–6588. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  72. Xu, S.Y.; Liu, J.P.; Huang, X.; Du, L.P.; Shi, F.L.; Dong, R.; Huang, X.T.; Zheng, K.; Liu, Y.; Cheong, K.L. Ultrasonic-microwave assisted extraction, characterization and biological activity of pectin from jackfruit peel. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 2018, 90, 577–582. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  73. Hua, X.; Wang, K.; Yang, R.; Kang, J.; Yang, H. Edible coatings from sunflower head pectin to reduce lipid uptake in fried potato chips. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 2015, 62, 1220–1225. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  74. Encalada, A.M.I.; Pérez, C.D.; Flores, S.K.; Rossetti, L.; Fissore, E.N.; Rojas, A.M. Antioxidant pectin enriched fractions obtained from discarded carrots (Daucus carota L.) by ultrasound-enzyme assisted extraction. Food Chem. 2019, 289, 453–460. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  75. Idrovo Encalada, A.M.; Pérez, C.D.; Calderón, P.A.; Zukowski, E.; Gerschenson, L.N.; Rojas, A.M.; Fissore, E.N. High-power ultrasound pretreatment for efficient extraction of fractions enriched in pectins and antioxidants from discarded carrots (Daucus carota L.). J. Food Eng. 2019, 256, 28–36. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  76. Nguyen, B.M.N.; Pirak, T. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of white dragon fruit peel pectin extracted with conventional and ultrasound-assisted extraction. Cogent Food Agric. 2019, 5, 1633076. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  77. Munarin, F.; Tanzi, M.C.; Petrini, P. Advances in biomedical applications of pectin gels. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2012, 51, 681–689. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  78. Coimbra, P.; Ferreira, P.; de Sousa, H.C.; Batista, P.; Rodrigues, M.A.; Correia, I.J.; Gil, M.H. Preparation and chemical and biological characterization of a pectin/chitosan polyelectrolyte complex scaffold for possible bone tissue engineering applications. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2011, 48, 112–118. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  79. Munarin, F.; Guerreiro, S.G.; Grellier, M.A.; Tanzi, M.C.; Barbosa, M.A.; Petrini, P.; Granja, P.L. Pectin-based injectable biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. Biomacromolecules 2011, 12, 568–577. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  80. Markov, P.A.; Popov, S.V.; Nikitina, I.R.; Ovodova, R.G.; Ovodov, Y.S. Anti-inflammatory activity of pectins and their galacturonan backbone. Russ. J. Bioorganic Chem. 2011, 37, 817–821. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  81. Singh, V.; Yeoh, B.S.; Walker, R.E.; Xiao, X.; Saha, P.; Golonka, R.M.; Cai, J.; Bretin, A.C.A.; Cheng, X.; Liu, Q.; et al. Microbiota fermentation-NLRP3 axis shapes the impact of dietary fibres on intestinal inflammation. Gut 2019, 68, 1801–1812. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  82. Licht, T.R.; Hansen, M.; Bergström, A.; Poulsen, M.; Krath, B.N.; Markowski, J.; Dragsted, L.O.; Wilcks, A. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: Role of apple pectin. BMC Microbiol. 2010, 10, 13. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  83. Chen, Y.; Xu, C.; Huang, R.; Song, J.; Li, D.; Xia, M. Butyrate from pectin fermentation inhibits intestinal cholesterol absorption and attenuates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. J. Nutr. Biochem. 2018, 56, 175–182. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  84. Viebke, C.; Al-Assaf, S.; Phillips, G.O. Food hydrocolloids and health claims. Bioact. Carbohydr. Diet. Fibre 2014, 4, 101–114. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  85. Jiang, T.; Gao, X.; Wu, C.; Tian, F.; Lei, Q.; Bi, J.; Xie, B.; Wang, H.; Chen, S.; Wang, X. Apple-Derived Pectin Modulates Gut Microbiota, Improves Gut Barrier Function, and Attenuates Metabolic Endotoxemia in Rats with Diet-Induced Obesity. Nutrients 2016, 8, 126. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  86. Nangia-Makker, P.; Hogan, V.; Honjo, Y.; Baccarini, S.; Tait, L.; Bresalier, R.; Raz, A. Inhibition of human cancer cell growth and metastasis in nude mice by oral intake of modified citrus pectin. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 2002, 94, 1854–1862. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  87. Dutta, R.K.; Sahu, S. Development of oxaliplatin encapsulated in magnetic nanocarriers of pectin as a potential targeted drug delivery for cancer therapy. Results Pharma Sci. 2012, 2, 38–45. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  88. Leclere, L.; Van Cutsem, P.; Michiels, C. Anti-cancer activities of pH- or heat-modified pectin. Front. Pharmacol. 2013, 4, 128. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  89. Delphi, L.; Sepehri, H.; Khorramizadeh, M.R.; Mansoori, F. Pectic-oligoshaccharides from apples induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells, a model of human breast cancer. Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 2015, 16, 5265–5271. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  90. Bermúdez-Oria, A.; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, G.; Alaiz, M.; Vioque, J.; Girón-Calle, J.; Fernández-Bolaños, J. Pectin-rich extracts from olives inhibit proliferation of Caco-2 and THP-1 cells. Food Funct. 2019, 10, 4844. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  91. Mao, G.; Wu, D.; Wei, C.; Tao, W.; Ye, X.; Linhardt, R.J.; Orfila, C.; Chen, S. Reconsidering conventional and innovative methods for pectin extraction from fruit and vegetable waste: Targeting rhamnogalacturonan I. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2019, 94, 65–78. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  92. Gómez, B.; Gullón, B.; Remoroza, C.; Schols, H.A.; Parajó, J.C.; Alonso, J.L. Purification, characterization, and prebiotic properties of pectic oligosaccharides from orange peel wastes. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2014, 62, 9769–9782. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  93. Manderson, K.; Pinart, M.; Tuohy, K.M.; Grace, W.E.; Hotchkiss, A.T.; Widmer, W.; Yadhav, M.P.; Gibson, G.R.; Rastall, R.A. In vitro determination of prebiotic properties of oligosaccharides derived from an orange juice manufacturing by-product stream. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2005, 71, 8383–8389. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  94. Gómez, B.; Gullón, B.; Yáñez, R.; Schols, H.; Alonso, J.L. Prebiotic potential of pectins and pectic oligosaccharides derived from lemon peel wastes and sugar beet pulp: A comparative evaluation. J. Funct. Foods 2016, 20, 108–121. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  95. Chung, W.S.F.; Meijerink, M.; Zeuner, B.; Holck, J.; Louis, P.; Meyer, A.S.; Wells, J.M.; Flint, H.J.; Duncan, S.H. Prebiotic potential of pectin and pectic oligosaccharides to promote anti-inflammatory commensal bacteria in the human colon. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 2017, 93, 127. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  96. Al-Tamimi, M.A.H.M.; Palframan, R.J.; Cooper, J.M.; Gibson, G.R.; Rastall, R.A. In vitro fermentation of sugar beet arabinan and arabino-oligosaccharides by the human gut microflora. J. Appl. Microbiol. 2006, 100, 407–414. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  97. Maxwell, E.G.; Colquhoun, I.J.; Chau, H.K.; Hotchkiss, A.T.; Waldron, K.W.; Morris, V.J.; Belshaw, N.J. Modified sugar beet pectin induces apoptosis of colon cancer cells via an interaction with the neutral sugar side-chains. Carbohydr. Polym. 2016, 136, 923–929. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  98. Islamova, Z.I.; Ogai, D.K.; Abramenko, O.I.; Lim, A.L.; Abduazimov, B.B.; Malikova, M.K.; Rakhmanberdyeva, R.K.; Khushbaktova, Z.A.; Syrov, V.N. Comparative Assessment of the Prebiotic Activity of Some Pectin Polysaccharides. Pharm. Chem. J. 2017, 51, 288–291. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  99. Liu, Y.; Dong, M.; Yang, Z.; Pan, S. Anti-diabetic effect of citrus pectin in diabetic rats and potential mechanism via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2016, 89, 484–488. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  100. Espinal-Ruiz, M.; Restrepo-Sánchez, L.P.; Narváez-Cuenca, C.E.; McClements, D.J. Impact of pectin properties on lipid digestion under simulated gastrointestinal conditions: Comparison of citrus and banana passion fruit (Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima) pectins. Food Hydrocoll. 2016, 52, 329–342. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  101. Guess, B.W.; Scholz, M.C.; Strum, S.B.; Lam, R.Y.; Johnson, H.J.; Jennrich, R.I. Modified citrus pectin (MCP) increases the prostate-specific antigen doubling time in men with prostate cancer: A phase II pilot study. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2003, 6, 301–304. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  102. Bergman, M.; Djaldetti, M.; Salman, H.; Bessler, H. Effect of citrus pectin on malignant cell proliferation. Biomed. Pharmacother. 2010, 64, 44–47. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  103. Liu, H.Y.; Huang, Z.L.; Yang, G.H.; Lu, W.Q.; Yu, N.R. Inhibitory effect of modified citrus pectin on liver metastases in a mouse colon cancer model. World J. Gastroenterol. 2008, 14, 7386–7391. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  104. Glinsky, V.V.; Raz, A. Modified citrus pectin anti-metastatic properties: One bullet, multiple targets. Carbohydr. Res. 2009, 344, 1788–1791. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  105. Maxwell, E.G.; Colquhoun, I.J.; Chau, H.K.; Hotchkiss, A.T.; Waldron, K.W.; Morris, V.J.; Belshaw, N.J. Rhamnogalacturonan i containing homogalacturonan inhibits colon cancer cell proliferation by decreasing ICAM1 expression. Carbohydr. Polym. 2015, 132, 546–553. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  106. Azémar, M.; Hildenbrand, B.; Haering, B.; Heim, M.E.; Unger, C. Clinical Benefit in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors Treated with Modified Citrus Pectin: A Prospective Pilot Study. Clin. Med. Oncol. 2007, 1, CMO.S285. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  107. Huang, P.H.; Fu, L.C.; Huang, C.S.; Wang, Y.T.; Wu, M.C. The uptake of oligogalacturonide and its effect on growth inhibition, lactate dehydrogenase activity and galactin-3 release of human cancer cells. Food Chem. 2012, 132, 1987–1995. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  108. Zhao, J.; Zhang, F.; Liu, X.; St. Ange, K.; Zhang, A.; Li, Q.; Linhardt, R.J. Isolation of a lectin binding rhamnogalacturonan-I containing pectic polysaccharide from pumpkin. Carbohydr. Polym. 2017, 163, 330–336. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  109. Mandalari, G.; Nueno Palop, C.; Tuohy, K.; Gibson, G.R.; Bennett, R.N.; Waldron, K.W.; Bisignano, G.; Narbad, A.; Faulds, C.B. In vitro evaluation of the prebiotic activity of a pectic oligosaccharide-rich extract enzymatically derived from bergamot peel. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2007, 73, 1173–1179. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  110. Wathoni, N.; Yuan Shan, C.; Yi Shan, W.; Rostinawati, T.; Indradi, R.B.; Pratiwi, R.; Muchtaridi, M. Characterization and antioxidant activity of pectin from Indonesian mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) rind. Heliyon 2019, 5, e02299. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  111. Amaral, S.d.C.; Barbieri, S.F.; Ruthes, A.C.; Bark, J.M.; Brochado Winnischofer, S.M.; Silveira, J.L.M. Cytotoxic effect of crude and purified pectins from Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg on human glioblastoma cells. Carbohydr. Polym. 2019, 224, 115140. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  112. Zaid, R.M.; Mishra, P.; Wahid, Z.A.; Sakinah, A.M.M. Hylocereus polyrhizus peel’s high-methoxyl pectin: A potential source of hypolipidemic agent. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2019, 134, 361–367. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  113. Rubio-Senent, F.; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, G.; Lama-Muñoz, A.; Fernández-Bolaños, J. Chemical characterization and properties of a polymeric phenolic fraction obtained from olive oil waste. Food Res. Int. 2013, 54, 2122–2129. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
Figure 1. Schematic representation of the structure of pectins, showing the galacturonic acid backbone, and the homogalacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan, and xylogalacturonan regions of the molecule. Modified from [26].
Figure 1. Schematic representation of the structure of pectins, showing the galacturonic acid backbone, and the homogalacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan, and xylogalacturonan regions of the molecule. Modified from [26].
Biology 10 00860 g001
Figure 2. Schematic comparing the extraction methods of pectin. A-assisted techniques include additional energy supply [1,14,24,42,46].
Figure 2. Schematic comparing the extraction methods of pectin. A-assisted techniques include additional energy supply [1,14,24,42,46].
Biology 10 00860 g002
Table 1. Pectin content of agricultural by-products [25,42,44].
Table 1. Pectin content of agricultural by-products [25,42,44].
SourceTotal Production (Tonnes)By-Product (% Fruit Weight)% Pectin in By-Product
Apple waste3.8 × 105 pulp5–10% pomace15–21%
Lemon peel8 × 104NA30%
Grapefruit pomaceNA5–10%NA
Pomelo peelNA10–15%NA
Sugar beet pulp9.1 × 107NA15–30%
Potato pulp1.3 × 105NA15%
Watermelon rindNA50–60%13–30%
Mango peelNA15–20%10–15%
Passion fruit peelNA50–60%15–20%
Banana peelNA20–30%4–6%
Olive pomace1.6 × 106NA34%
Table 2. Pectin yield from plant sources and composition [24,44].
Table 2. Pectin yield from plant sources and composition [24,44].
SourceYield of Extracted PectinGalacturonic Acid ContentDegree of Esterification
Apple pomace10–20%58–67%52–76%
Lime peel13–26%91%82%
Orange peel24%68%37%
Grapefruit waste25–30%NANA
Pomelo peel6–37%NANA
Sugar beet pulp24%72%28–52%
Pumpkin waste7%63–73%3–18%
Carrot pomace5–15%62–69%53–77%
Carrot peel9%
Tomato pomace7%78%76–88%
Tomato peel32%
Watermelon rind3–28%68–74%61–63%
Mango peel5–17%29–53%85–88%
Passion fruit peel8–12%66–68%45–60%
Banana peel2–9%40–71%1–80%
NA: not available.
Table 3. Percentage yields of pectin extracted using several methods.
Table 3. Percentage yields of pectin extracted using several methods.
SourceSolvent ExtractionEnzyme ExtractionSWEUAEMAEUMAE
Apple pomace [1,14]3–23%3–14%10–16%9%23%
Lime peel [44] 23%
Orange peel [1,14,44,46]3–23%11% 28%5–26%
Grapefruit waste [1,14,46]17–24% 3–32%
Pomelo peel [1,14,44,46]3% 3–19%3–38%0.05–29%36%
Sugar beet pulp [14,46] 26%5–32%
Pumpkin waste [14,46] 22–23%3–7%
Carrot waste [14,46]5–15% 27–35%
Tomato waste [14,46]9–19% 15–36%
Watermelon rind [14,44] 13–24%
Mango peel [44,46]5% 8–17%
Passion fruit peel [14,44,46]5–14%3–26% 7–13%30%
Banana peel [14,44,46]5–12% 21%1–2%
SWE: Subcritical water extraction. UAE: Ultrasound-assisted extraction. MAE: Microwave-assisted extraction. UMAE: Ultrasonic/microwave-assisted extraction.
Table 4. Oil content, AIR (alcohol insoluble residue) yield, and pectin degree of methyl esterification from several olive cultivars at different ripening stages [33].
Table 4. Oil content, AIR (alcohol insoluble residue) yield, and pectin degree of methyl esterification from several olive cultivars at different ripening stages [33].
CultivarMaturity StageOil Content (g/100 g) DWAIR (g/100 g)Degree of Esterification
Table 5. Use of pectins and pectin combinations in food and non-food industry [44,54,59].
Table 5. Use of pectins and pectin combinations in food and non-food industry [44,54,59].
Use in Food IndustryUse in Non-Food Industry
Citrus [56,60,61,62,63]Antimicrobial, gelling, and thickeningDisinfection of medical devices, genes, drug delivery, and gelling/thickening agent
Lemon peel [64] Packaging material
Pineapple peel [65]Inhibit lipid oxidation
Tomato peel [66]Corrosion inhibitor
Grapefruit peel [37,67,68]Gelling agent, lipid digestibilityWastewater treatment
Fig skin [69]Anti-radical/oxidant
Sugar beet pulp [70] Drug delivery
Durian rind [71] Wastewater treatment
Jackfruit peel [72]Antioxidant
Sunflower head [73]Reduce lipid uptake
Carrot waste [74,75]Antioxidant
Dragon fruit peel [76]Antioxidant
Table 6. Bioactivity of pectins extracted from various sources [25,44,46,59].
Table 6. Bioactivity of pectins extracted from various sources [25,44,46,59].
Orange peelPrebiotic effect [92,93]
Sugar beet pulpPrebiotic effect [94,95,96]
Anti-inflammatory [95]
Antitumoral [97]
Lemon peelPrebiotic effect [94]
Apple pomacePrebiotic effect [98]
CitrusAnti-diabetic [99]
Lipid digestibility [100]
Antitumoral [101,102,103,104,105,106,107]
Banana passion fruit wasteLipid digestibility [100]
Pumpkin wasteAntitumoral [108]
Fig skinAntitumoral [69]
Grapefruit peelAntioxidant [37]
Bergamot peelPrebiotic effect [109]
Mangosteen rindAntioxidant [110]
Gabiroba pulpAntitumoral [111]
Dragonfruit peelHypolipidemic agent [112]
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Millan-Linares, M.C.; Montserrat-de la Paz, S.; Martin, M.E. Pectins and Olive Pectins: From Biotechnology to Human Health. Biology 2021, 10, 860.

AMA Style

Millan-Linares MC, Montserrat-de la Paz S, Martin ME. Pectins and Olive Pectins: From Biotechnology to Human Health. Biology. 2021; 10(9):860.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Millan-Linares, Maria C., Sergio Montserrat-de la Paz, and Maria E. Martin. 2021. "Pectins and Olive Pectins: From Biotechnology to Human Health" Biology 10, no. 9: 860.

Note that from the first issue of 2016, this journal uses article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop