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Article

Gene Flow and Diversification in Himalopsyche martynovi Species Complex (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae) in the Hengduan Mountains

1
Entomology III, Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum, Senckenberganlage 25, 60325 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
2
Institute of Insect Biotechnology, Justus-Liebig-University Gießen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, 35392 Gießen, Germany
3
LOEWE Centre for Translational Biodiversity Genomics (LOEWE-TBG), Senckenberganlage 25, 60325 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
4
Department of Scientific Computing, 400 Dirac Science Library, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4102, USA
5
Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, 89 Chieftan Way, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4295, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jukka Finne
Biology 2021, 10(8), 816; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10080816
Received: 14 July 2021 / Revised: 16 August 2021 / Accepted: 17 August 2021 / Published: 23 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Novelty as Source of Biodiversity in Mountains)
Himalopsyche is a group of aquatic insects endemic to the Hengduan Mountains, of which species are usually easily identifiable based on male genitalia, except for a few morphologically variable groups including the Himalopsyche martynovi complex. In order to clarify species boundaries within this complex, we investigated its evolutionary history (phylogenetics and gene flow analyses) using a large genomic dataset (~500,000 sites). We found three clades in the Himalopsyche martynovi complex, one of which being very variable morphologically while being involved in gene flow with other related lineages. When interpreted in the light of past geological, climatic and palaeohydrological changes, our study suggests that biological novelty—here, trait variation and recombination—may have been acquired via hybridization and represent a source of mountain biodiversity.
The Hengduan Mountains are one of the most species-rich mountainous areas in the world. The origin and evolution of such a remarkable biodiversity are likely to be associated with geological or climatic dynamics, as well as taxon-specific biotic processes (e.g., hybridization, polyploidization, etc.). Here, we investigate the mechanisms fostering the diversification of the endemic Himalopsyche martynovi complex, a poorly known group of aquatic insects. We used multiple allelic datasets generated from 691 AHE loci to reconstruct species and RaxML phylogenetic trees. We selected the most reliable phylogenetic tree to perform network and gene flow analyses. The phylogenetic reconstructions and network analysis identified three clades, including H. epikur, H. martynovi sensu stricto and H. cf. martynovi. Himalopsyche martynovi sensu stricto and H. cf. martynovi present an intermediate morphology between H. epikur and H. viteceki, the closest known relative to the H. martynovi-complex. The gene flow analysis revealed extensive gene flow among these lineages. Our results suggest that H. viteceki and H. epikur are likely to have contributed to the evolution of H. martynovi sensu stricto and H. cf. martynovi via gene flow, and thus, our study provides insights in the diversification process of a lesser-known ecological group, and hints at the potential role of gene flow in the emergence of biological novelty in the Hengduan Mountains. View Full-Text
Keywords: Hengduan Mountains; Himalopsyche martynovi; gene flow; morphology; phylogeny; speciation; target enrichment Hengduan Mountains; Himalopsyche martynovi; gene flow; morphology; phylogeny; speciation; target enrichment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Deng, X.-L.; Favre, A.; Lemmon, E.M.; Lemmon, A.R.; Pauls, S.U. Gene Flow and Diversification in Himalopsyche martynovi Species Complex (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae) in the Hengduan Mountains. Biology 2021, 10, 816. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10080816

AMA Style

Deng X-L, Favre A, Lemmon EM, Lemmon AR, Pauls SU. Gene Flow and Diversification in Himalopsyche martynovi Species Complex (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae) in the Hengduan Mountains. Biology. 2021; 10(8):816. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10080816

Chicago/Turabian Style

Deng, Xi-Ling, Adrien Favre, Emily Moriarty Lemmon, Alan R. Lemmon, and Steffen U. Pauls. 2021. "Gene Flow and Diversification in Himalopsyche martynovi Species Complex (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae) in the Hengduan Mountains" Biology 10, no. 8: 816. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10080816

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