Next Article in Journal
Assessment of Various Toxicity Endpoints in Duckweed (Lemna minor) at the Physiological, Biochemical, and Molecular Levels as a Measure of Diuron Stress
Previous Article in Journal
Neurotoxic Effect of Fipronil in Male Wistar Rats: Ameliorative Effect of L-Arginine and L-Carnitine
Article

The Role of Monk Parakeets as Nest-Site Facilitators in Their Native and Invaded Areas

1
Department of Conservation Biology, Doñana Biological Station (CSIC), Calle Américo Vespucio 26, 41092 Sevilla, Spain
2
Department of Physical, Chemical and Natural Systems, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Carretera de Utrera, km 1, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
3
Department of Evolutionary Ecology, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC), José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain
4
Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona, Castell dels Tres Dragons, Parc Ciutadella, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
5
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerca sugli Ecosistemi Terrestri, Via Madonna del Piano 10, Sesto Fiorentino, 50019 Florence, Italy
6
Puerto Rican Parrot Recovery Program, US Fish and Wildlife Service, P.O. Box 1600 , Rio Grande, PR 00745, USA
7
Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Universidad Europea de Madrid, 28670 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ettore Randi
Biology 2021, 10(7), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10070683
Received: 8 June 2021 / Revised: 9 July 2021 / Accepted: 14 July 2021 / Published: 19 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Conservation Biology and Biodiversity)
Invasive species can be harmful to native species, although this fact could be more complex when some natives eventually benefit from invaders. Faced with this paradox, we show how the invasive monk parakeet, the only parrot species that builds its nests with sticks, can host other species as tenants, increasing nest-site availability for native but also exotic species. This same pattern is observed in the native range of the species, and when parakeets occupy urban or rural habitats, although the richness of tenants was higher in invaded areas and rural habitats. Tenants participated in the cooperative defense against predators, benefiting parakeets with their presence. As tenants can be both native and invasive species, management plans should consider the complex network of interactions developed with the invader.
While most of the knowledge on invasive species focuses on their impacts, little is known about their potential positive effects on other species. Invasive ecosystem engineers can disrupt recipient environments; however, they may also facilitate access to novel resources for native species. The monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) is a worldwide invader and the only parrot that builds its own communal nests, which can be used by other species. However, the ecological effects of these interspecific interactions are barely known. We compared the role of the monk parakeet as a nest-site facilitator in different rural and urban areas, both invaded and native, across three continents and eight breeding seasons. A total of 2690 nests from 42 tenant species, mostly cavity-nesting birds, were recorded in 26% of 2595 monk parakeet nests. Rural and invaded areas showed the highest abundance and richness of tenant species. Multispecies communal nests triggered interspecific aggression between the monk parakeet host and its tenants, but also a cooperative defense against predators. Despite the positive effects for native species, monk parakeets also facilitate nesting opportunities to other non-native species and may also transmit diseases to tenants, highlighting the complexity of biotic interactions in biological invasions. View Full-Text
Keywords: nest inquilines; biological invasions; cavity nesters; monk parakeet; facilitation; protective-nesting association; ecosystem engineer nest inquilines; biological invasions; cavity nesters; monk parakeet; facilitation; protective-nesting association; ecosystem engineer
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Hernández-Brito, D.; Carrete, M.; Blanco, G.; Romero-Vidal, P.; Senar, J.C.; Mori, E.; White, T.H., Jr.; Luna, Á.; Tella, J.L. The Role of Monk Parakeets as Nest-Site Facilitators in Their Native and Invaded Areas. Biology 2021, 10, 683. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10070683

AMA Style

Hernández-Brito D, Carrete M, Blanco G, Romero-Vidal P, Senar JC, Mori E, White TH Jr., Luna Á, Tella JL. The Role of Monk Parakeets as Nest-Site Facilitators in Their Native and Invaded Areas. Biology. 2021; 10(7):683. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10070683

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hernández-Brito, Dailos, Martina Carrete, Guillermo Blanco, Pedro Romero-Vidal, Juan C. Senar, Emiliano Mori, Thomas H. White Jr., Álvaro Luna, and José L. Tella 2021. "The Role of Monk Parakeets as Nest-Site Facilitators in Their Native and Invaded Areas" Biology 10, no. 7: 683. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10070683

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop