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Combined Effect of Cultivar and Peel Chromaticity on Figs’ Primary and Secondary Metabolites: Preliminary Study Using Biochemical and FTIR Fingerprinting Coupled to Chemometrics

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National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), P.O. 415, Rabat 10000, Morocco
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Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, Cadi Ayyad University, P.O. 2390, Marrakesh 40000, Morocco
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Grupo de Investigación en Fruticultura y Técnicas de Producción, Centro de Investigación e Innovación Agroalimentaria y Agroambiental (CIAGRO-UMH), Miguel Hernández University, Carretera de Beniel, km 3.2, 03312 Orihuela, Spain
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Laboratory of Bioprocessing and Bio-Interfaces, Faculty of Sciences and Technics, Université Sultan Moulay Slimane, P.O. 523, Beni-Mellal 23000, Morocco
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alessandra Durazzo and Luigi De Bellis
Biology 2021, 10(7), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10070573
Received: 21 April 2021 / Revised: 2 June 2021 / Accepted: 4 June 2021 / Published: 23 June 2021
Primary and secondary metabolites are among the markers for addressing fig chemotypic variability. These compounds are mainly driven by the cultivar factor besides chromatic coordinates color as they are highly correlated to these biomarkers. Combined use of chemical analytical procedures and vibrational spectroscopy is of great importance for a better understanding of network connections within the dataset. In this study, we screened 11 fig tree cultivars for their biochemical and spectral fingerprints in a comparative scheme for high resolution discrimination. Analytical methods herein used were also evaluated for their greenness aspects using GAPI eco-scale tool.
Figs are a traditional pantry staple for healthy eating in Middle Eastern and North African countries as fig trees grow abundantly in such hot and dry climates. Despite the importance of this species, chemotypic diversity has gone unheeded and therefore its valorization pathways remain poorly documented. For this reason, high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) alongside vibrational spectroscopy were used to investigate the changes of antiradical potency and primary and secondary metabolites in fresh figs with regard to the combined effect of the cultivar factor and the fruit peel chromatic coordinates. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) fingerprinting displayed six major peaks assigned to functional groups of the investigated samples with significant differences in their vibration intensities. Biochemical screening revealed highly significant variability (p < 0.05) among the investigated cultivars. Antioxidant activity was found to be higher in free radical scavenging using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) compared to ferric reducing ability (FRAP). Chemometric investigations of both biochemical and FTIR fingerprinting showed satisfactory resolutions, and the total phenol contents and chromatic coordinates had the highest scores in the dataset. However, the cultivars’ geographical origin seemed not to have a clear impact on the clustering results. The aforementioned analytical procedures were found to be equally important and can be jointly used for high-resolution screening and discrimination of fig trees. View Full-Text
Keywords: secondary metabolites; antioxidant activity; FTIR fingerprinting; chemometrics; Ficus carica L. secondary metabolites; antioxidant activity; FTIR fingerprinting; chemometrics; Ficus carica L.
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hssaini, L.; Elfazazi, K.; Razouk, R.; Ouaabou, R.; Hernandez, F.; Hanine, H.; Charafi, J.; Houmanat, K.; Aboutayeb, R. Combined Effect of Cultivar and Peel Chromaticity on Figs’ Primary and Secondary Metabolites: Preliminary Study Using Biochemical and FTIR Fingerprinting Coupled to Chemometrics. Biology 2021, 10, 573. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10070573

AMA Style

Hssaini L, Elfazazi K, Razouk R, Ouaabou R, Hernandez F, Hanine H, Charafi J, Houmanat K, Aboutayeb R. Combined Effect of Cultivar and Peel Chromaticity on Figs’ Primary and Secondary Metabolites: Preliminary Study Using Biochemical and FTIR Fingerprinting Coupled to Chemometrics. Biology. 2021; 10(7):573. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10070573

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hssaini, Lahcen, Kaoutar Elfazazi, Rachid Razouk, Rachida Ouaabou, Francisca Hernandez, Hafida Hanine, Jamal Charafi, Karim Houmanat, and Rachid Aboutayeb. 2021. "Combined Effect of Cultivar and Peel Chromaticity on Figs’ Primary and Secondary Metabolites: Preliminary Study Using Biochemical and FTIR Fingerprinting Coupled to Chemometrics" Biology 10, no. 7: 573. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10070573

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