Karnal bunt (KB) of wheat (Triticum aestivum
L.), known as partial bunt has its origin in Karnal, India and is caused by Tilletia indica
(Ti). Its incidence had grown drastically since late 1960s from northwestern India to northern India in early 1970s. It is a seed, air and soil borne pathogen mainly affecting common wheat, durum wheat, triticale and other related species. The seeds become inedible, inviable and infertile with the precedence of trimethylamine secreted by teliospores in the infected seeds. Initially the causal pathogen was named Tilletia indica
but was later renamed Neovossia indica
. The black powdered smelly spores remain viable for years in soil, wheat straw and farmyard manure as primary sources of inoculum. The losses reported were as high as 40% in India and also the cumulative reduction of national farm income in USA was USD 5.3 billion due to KB. The present review utilizes information from literature of the past 100 years, since 1909, to provide a comprehensive and updated understanding of KB, its causal pathogen, biology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, etc. Next generation sequencing (NGS) is gaining popularity in revolutionizing KB genomics for understanding and improving agronomic traits like yield, disease tolerance and disease resistance. Genetic resistance is the best way to manage KB, which may be achieved through detection of genes/quantitative trait loci (QTLs). The genome-wide association studies can be applied to reveal the association mapping panel for understanding and obtaining the KB resistance locus on the wheat genome, which can be crossed with elite wheat cultivars globally for a diverse wheat breeding program. The review discusses the current NGS-based genomic studies, assembly, annotations, resistant QTLs, GWAS, technology landscape of diagnostics and management of KB. The compiled exhaustive information can be beneficial to the wheat breeders for better understanding of incidence of disease in endeavor of quality production of the crop.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited