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Systematic Review

Emerging Status of Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria and Fungi in the Arabian Peninsula

1
Department of Epidemic Diseases Research, Institute for Research and Medical Consultations (IRMC), Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Genetic Research, Institute for Research and Medical Consultations (IRMC), Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia
3
Department of Clinical Pharmacy Research, Institute for Research and Medical Consultations (IRMC), Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equally contributed.
Academic Editors: Chrissoula Voidarou, Athina S. Tzora and Georgios Rozos
Biology 2021, 10(11), 1144; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10111144
Received: 12 October 2021 / Revised: 31 October 2021 / Accepted: 4 November 2021 / Published: 6 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Diversity and Microbial Resistance)
The incidence and developing status of multidrug-resistant bacteria and fungi, as well as their related mortality, is reviewed by a systematic published literature search from nine countries in the Arabian Peninsula. In order to analyse the emerging status and mortality, a total of 382 research articles were selected from a comprehensive screening of 1705 papers. More than 850 deaths reported since 2010 in the Arabian Peninsula due to the infection of multidrug-resistant bacteria and fungi. Multidrug-resistant bacteria Acinetobacter baumannii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, and fungi Candida auris are the most prevalent and causing high deaths. To control these infections and associated deaths in the Arabian Peninsula, continuous preventive measures, accurate methods for early diagnosis of infection, active surveillance, constant monitoring, developing vaccines, eradicating multidrug resistance modulators, and data sharing among countries are required.
We aimed to identify the prevalence and emerging status of multidrug-resistant bacteria and fungi and their associated mortality in nine countries in the Arabian Peninsula. Original research articles and case studies regarding multidrug-resistant bacteria and fungi in the Arabian Peninsula, published during the last 10 years, were retrieved from PubMed and Scopus. A total of 382 studies were included as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria, as well as the PRISMA guidelines, from a thorough screening of 1705 articles, in order to analyse the emerging status and mortality. The emerging nature of >120 multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria and fungi in the Arabian Peninsula is a serious concern that requires continuous monitoring and immediate preventive measures. More than 50% (n = 453) of multidrug-resistant, microbe-associated mortality (n = 871) in the Arabian Peninsula was due to MDR Acinetobacter baumannii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus infection. Overall, a 16.51% mortality was reported among MDR-infected patients in the Arabian Peninsula from the 382 articles of this registered systematic review. MDR A. baumannii (5600 isolates) prevailed in all the nine countries of the Arabian Peninsula and was one of the fastest emerging MDR bacteria with the highest mortality (n = 210). A total of 13,087 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were reported in the region. Candida auris (580 strains) is the most prevalent among the MDR fungal pathogen in the Arabian Peninsula, having caused 54 mortalities. Active surveillance, constant monitoring, the development of a candidate vaccine, an early diagnosis of MDR infection, the elimination of multidrug resistance modulators and uninterrupted preventive measures with enhanced data sharing are mandatory to control MDR infection and associated diseases of the Arabian Peninsula. Accurate and rapid detection methods are needed to differentiate MDR strain from other strains of the species. This review summarises the logical relation, prevalence, emerging status and associated mortality of MDR microbes in the Arabian Peninsula. View Full-Text
Keywords: multidrug-resistant bacteria; Acinetobacter baumannii; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; mortality; Candida auris; Arabian Peninsula multidrug-resistant bacteria; Acinetobacter baumannii; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; mortality; Candida auris; Arabian Peninsula
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MDPI and ACS Style

Borgio, J.F.; Rasdan, A.S.; Sonbol, B.; Alhamid, G.; Almandil, N.B.; AbdulAzeez, S. Emerging Status of Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria and Fungi in the Arabian Peninsula. Biology 2021, 10, 1144. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10111144

AMA Style

Borgio JF, Rasdan AS, Sonbol B, Alhamid G, Almandil NB, AbdulAzeez S. Emerging Status of Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria and Fungi in the Arabian Peninsula. Biology. 2021; 10(11):1144. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10111144

Chicago/Turabian Style

Borgio, J. F., Alia S. Rasdan, Bayan Sonbol, Galyah Alhamid, Noor B. Almandil, and Sayed AbdulAzeez. 2021. "Emerging Status of Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria and Fungi in the Arabian Peninsula" Biology 10, no. 11: 1144. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10111144

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