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Article

Effect of the Elemental Content of Shells of the Bivalve Mollusks (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from Saldanha Bay (South Africa) on Their Crystallographic Texture

1
Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Russia
2
Horia Hulubei National Institute for R&D in Physics and Nuclear Engineering, 077125 Bucharest, Romania
3
Borissiak Paleontological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117997 Moscow, Russia
4
Faculty of Military Science, Stellenbosch University, Victoria Street, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Etsuro Ito
Biology 2021, 10(11), 1093; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10111093
Received: 13 September 2021 / Revised: 20 October 2021 / Accepted: 21 October 2021 / Published: 25 October 2021
The aim was to study the question of whether the texture of mollusk shells changes with alteration in their elemental composition. Even though significant differences between concentrations of elements among the stations were found, the crystallographic textures of mussel shells from the studied bays showed insignificant dissimilarities. The observed differences in the maximum values in the pole figures fell within the range of variability identified for the genus Mytilus. Nevertheless, they appeared to correlate with the concentrations of Br, Mg, and Sr, which merits further investigation using larger sample sizes and higher variabilities of the ecological state of mussels.
A both wild and farmed mussels in natural conditions, anthropogenic inputs are usually reflected in the increase of the content of specific elements. To determine the possible effect of the elemental patterns of farmed and wild mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected in the Saldanha Bay area (South Africa) on the crystallographic texture of the shells, the content of 20 elements in shells and 24 in the soft tissue of mussels was determined by neutron activation analysis. The crystallographic texture of mussel shells was analyzed using time-of-flight neutron diffraction. The wild mussels from open ocean site live in stressful natural conditions and contain higher amounts of the majority of determined elements in comparison with mussels farmed in closed water areas with anthropogenic loadings. The changes between the maximums of the same pole figures of the three samples are in the range of variability identified for the genus Mytilus. The content of Cl, Sr, and I was the highest in mussels from the open ocean site, which is reflected by the lowest mass/length ratio. The determined crystallographic textures of mussels are relatively stable as shown in the analyzed pole figures despite the concentrations of Na, Mg, Cl, Br, Sr, and I in shells, which significantly differ for wild and farmed mussels. The stability of the crystallographic texture that we observed suggests that it can be used as a reference model, where if a very different texture is determined, increased attention to the ecological situation should be paid. View Full-Text
Keywords: neutron diffraction; crystallographic texture; pole figures; neutron activation analysis; trace elements; bivalve mollusk shells neutron diffraction; crystallographic texture; pole figures; neutron activation analysis; trace elements; bivalve mollusk shells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nekhoroshkov, P.; Zinicovscaia, I.; Nikolayev, D.; Lychagina, T.; Pakhnevich, A.; Yushin, N.; Bezuidenhout, J. Effect of the Elemental Content of Shells of the Bivalve Mollusks (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from Saldanha Bay (South Africa) on Their Crystallographic Texture. Biology 2021, 10, 1093. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10111093

AMA Style

Nekhoroshkov P, Zinicovscaia I, Nikolayev D, Lychagina T, Pakhnevich A, Yushin N, Bezuidenhout J. Effect of the Elemental Content of Shells of the Bivalve Mollusks (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from Saldanha Bay (South Africa) on Their Crystallographic Texture. Biology. 2021; 10(11):1093. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10111093

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nekhoroshkov, Pavel, Inga Zinicovscaia, Dmitry Nikolayev, Tatiana Lychagina, Alexey Pakhnevich, Nikita Yushin, and Jacques Bezuidenhout. 2021. "Effect of the Elemental Content of Shells of the Bivalve Mollusks (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from Saldanha Bay (South Africa) on Their Crystallographic Texture" Biology 10, no. 11: 1093. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10111093

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