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Open AccessArticle

Relevance of the Preparation of the Target for PLD on the Magnetic Properties of Films of Iron-Doped Indium Oxide

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Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hicks Building, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH, UK
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Department of Physics, Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001, Saudi Arabia
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The National Centre for Laser and Optoelectronics, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, KACST P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442, Saudi Arabia
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Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, USA
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School of Chemistry and Materials Science of Shanxi Normal University & Key Laboratory of Magnetic Molecules and Magnetic Information Materials of the Ministry of Education, Linfen 041004, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Coatings 2019, 9(6), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9060381
Received: 2 May 2019 / Revised: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Research in Pulsed Laser Deposition)
This paper concerns the importance of the preparation of the targets that may be used for pulsed laser deposition of iron-doped indium oxide films. Targets with a fixed concentration of iron are fabricated from indium oxide and iron metal or one of the oxides of iron, FeO, Fe3O4 and Fe2O3. Films from each target were ablated onto sapphire substrates at the same temperature under different oxygen pressures such that the thickness of the films was kept approximately constant. The films were studied using X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption (both XANES and EXAFS), optical absorption and magnetic circular dichroism. The magnetic properties were measured with a SQUID magnetometer. At the lowest oxygen pressure, there was evidence that some of the iron ions in the films were in the state Fe2+, rather than Fe3+, and there was also a little metallic iron; these properties were accompanied by a substantial magnetisation. As the amount of the oxygen was increased, the number of defect phases and the saturation magnetisation was reduced and the band gap increased. In each case, we found that the amount of the oxygen that had been included in the target from the precursor added to the effect of adding oxygen in the deposition chamber. It was concluded that the amount of oxygen in the target due to the precursor was an important consideration but not a defining factor in the quality of the films. View Full-Text
Keywords: PLD; target preparation; room temperature ferromagnetism; dilute magnetic semiconductor; Indium oxide; (InFe)2O3 PLD; target preparation; room temperature ferromagnetism; dilute magnetic semiconductor; Indium oxide; (InFe)2O3
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Albargi, H.B.; Alshammari, M.S.; Museery, K.Y.; Heald, S.M.; Jiang, F.-X.; Saeedi, A.M.A.; Fox, A.M.; Gehring, G.A. Relevance of the Preparation of the Target for PLD on the Magnetic Properties of Films of Iron-Doped Indium Oxide. Coatings 2019, 9, 381.

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