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Atomic Layer Deposition of NiO to Produce Active Material for Thin-Film Lithium-Ion Batteries

1
Institute of Metallurgy, Mechanical Engineering and Transport, Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University, 195221 Saint Petersburg, Russia
2
Institute of Chemistry, Saint Petersburg State University, 7/9 Universitetskaya nab, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia
3
Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 16628 Prague, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Coatings 2019, 9(5), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9050301
Received: 15 April 2019 / Revised: 29 April 2019 / Accepted: 1 May 2019 / Published: 3 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Functionalization by ALD Technology)
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Abstract

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) provides a promising route for depositing uniform thin-film electrodes for Li-ion batteries. In this work, bis(methylcyclopentadienyl) nickel(II) (Ni(MeCp)2) and bis(cyclopentadienyl) nickel(II) (NiCp2) were used as precursors for NiO ALD. Oxygen plasma was used as a counter-reactant. The films were studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that the optimal temperature for the deposition for NiCp2 was 200–300 °C, but the optimal Ni(MeCp)2 growth per ALD cycle was 0.011–0.012 nm for both precursors at 250–300 °C. The films deposited using NiCp2 and oxygen plasma at 300 °C using optimal ALD condition consisted mainly of stoichiometric polycrystalline NiO with high density (6.6 g/cm3) and low roughness (0.34 nm). However, the films contain carbon impurities. The NiO films (thickness 28–30 nm) deposited on stainless steel showed a specific capacity above 1300 mAh/g, which is significantly more than the theoretical capacity of bulk NiO (718 mAh/g) because it includes the capacity of the NiO film and the pseudo-capacity of the gel-like solid electrolyte interface film. The presence of pseudo-capacity and its increase during cycling is discussed based on a detailed analysis of cyclic voltammograms and charge–discharge curves (U(C)). View Full-Text
Keywords: atomic layer deposition; nickel oxide; Li-ion batteries; thin films atomic layer deposition; nickel oxide; Li-ion batteries; thin films
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Koshtyal, Y.; Nazarov, D.; Ezhov, I.; Mitrofanov, I.; Kim, A.; Rymyantsev, A.; Lyutakov, O.; Popovich, A.; Maximov, M. Atomic Layer Deposition of NiO to Produce Active Material for Thin-Film Lithium-Ion Batteries. Coatings 2019, 9, 301.

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