Atomic Layer Deposition of NiO to Produce Active Material for Thin-Film Lithium-Ion Batteries
AbstractAtomic layer deposition (ALD) provides a promising route for depositing uniform thin-film electrodes for Li-ion batteries. In this work, bis(methylcyclopentadienyl) nickel(II) (Ni(MeCp)2) and bis(cyclopentadienyl) nickel(II) (NiCp2) were used as precursors for NiO ALD. Oxygen plasma was used as a counter-reactant. The films were studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that the optimal temperature for the deposition for NiCp2 was 200–300 °C, but the optimal Ni(MeCp)2 growth per ALD cycle was 0.011–0.012 nm for both precursors at 250–300 °C. The films deposited using NiCp2 and oxygen plasma at 300 °C using optimal ALD condition consisted mainly of stoichiometric polycrystalline NiO with high density (6.6 g/cm3) and low roughness (0.34 nm). However, the films contain carbon impurities. The NiO films (thickness 28–30 nm) deposited on stainless steel showed a specific capacity above 1300 mAh/g, which is significantly more than the theoretical capacity of bulk NiO (718 mAh/g) because it includes the capacity of the NiO film and the pseudo-capacity of the gel-like solid electrolyte interface film. The presence of pseudo-capacity and its increase during cycling is discussed based on a detailed analysis of cyclic voltammograms and charge–discharge curves (U(C)). View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Koshtyal, Y.; Nazarov, D.; Ezhov, I.; Mitrofanov, I.; Kim, A.; Rymyantsev, A.; Lyutakov, O.; Popovich, A.; Maximov, M. Atomic Layer Deposition of NiO to Produce Active Material for Thin-Film Lithium-Ion Batteries. Coatings 2019, 9, 301.
Koshtyal Y, Nazarov D, Ezhov I, Mitrofanov I, Kim A, Rymyantsev A, Lyutakov O, Popovich A, Maximov M. Atomic Layer Deposition of NiO to Produce Active Material for Thin-Film Lithium-Ion Batteries. Coatings. 2019; 9(5):301.Chicago/Turabian Style
Koshtyal, Yury; Nazarov, Denis; Ezhov, Ilya; Mitrofanov, Ilya; Kim, Artem; Rymyantsev, Aleksander; Lyutakov, Oleksiy; Popovich, Anatoly; Maximov, Maxim. 2019. "Atomic Layer Deposition of NiO to Produce Active Material for Thin-Film Lithium-Ion Batteries." Coatings 9, no. 5: 301.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.