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Atomic Layer Deposition of NiO to Produce Active Material for Thin-Film Lithium-Ion Batteries

Institute of Metallurgy, Mechanical Engineering and Transport, Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University, 195221 Saint Petersburg, Russia
Institute of Chemistry, Saint Petersburg State University, 7/9 Universitetskaya nab, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia
Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 16628 Prague, Czech Republic
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Coatings 2019, 9(5), 301;
Received: 15 April 2019 / Revised: 29 April 2019 / Accepted: 1 May 2019 / Published: 3 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Functionalization by ALD Technology)
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Atomic layer deposition (ALD) provides a promising route for depositing uniform thin-film electrodes for Li-ion batteries. In this work, bis(methylcyclopentadienyl) nickel(II) (Ni(MeCp)2) and bis(cyclopentadienyl) nickel(II) (NiCp2) were used as precursors for NiO ALD. Oxygen plasma was used as a counter-reactant. The films were studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that the optimal temperature for the deposition for NiCp2 was 200–300 °C, but the optimal Ni(MeCp)2 growth per ALD cycle was 0.011–0.012 nm for both precursors at 250–300 °C. The films deposited using NiCp2 and oxygen plasma at 300 °C using optimal ALD condition consisted mainly of stoichiometric polycrystalline NiO with high density (6.6 g/cm3) and low roughness (0.34 nm). However, the films contain carbon impurities. The NiO films (thickness 28–30 nm) deposited on stainless steel showed a specific capacity above 1300 mAh/g, which is significantly more than the theoretical capacity of bulk NiO (718 mAh/g) because it includes the capacity of the NiO film and the pseudo-capacity of the gel-like solid electrolyte interface film. The presence of pseudo-capacity and its increase during cycling is discussed based on a detailed analysis of cyclic voltammograms and charge–discharge curves (U(C)). View Full-Text
Keywords: atomic layer deposition; nickel oxide; Li-ion batteries; thin films atomic layer deposition; nickel oxide; Li-ion batteries; thin films

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Koshtyal, Y.; Nazarov, D.; Ezhov, I.; Mitrofanov, I.; Kim, A.; Rymyantsev, A.; Lyutakov, O.; Popovich, A.; Maximov, M. Atomic Layer Deposition of NiO to Produce Active Material for Thin-Film Lithium-Ion Batteries. Coatings 2019, 9, 301.

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