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Grafting of Gallic Acid onto a Bioactive Ti6Al4V Alloy: A Physico-Chemical Characterization

1
Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy
2
Department of Chemistry, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 5, 10125 Torino, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contribute equally to this paper.
Coatings 2019, 9(5), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9050302
Received: 2 April 2019 / Revised: 24 April 2019 / Accepted: 25 April 2019 / Published: 3 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Engineering of Light Alloys)
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Abstract

Despite increasing interest in the use of natural biomolecules for different applications, few attempts of coupling them to inorganic biomaterials are reported in literature. Functionalization of metal implants with natural biomolecules could allow a local action, overcoming the issue of low bioavailability through systemic administration. In the present work, gallic acid was grafted to a pre-treated Ti6Al4V in order to improve its biological response in bone contact applications. The grafting procedure was optimized by choosing the concentration of gallic acid (1 mg/mL) and the solvent of the solution, which was used as a source for functionalization, in order to maximize the amount of the grafted molecule on the titanium substrate. The functionalized surfaces were characterized. The results showed that functionalization with Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) as solvent medium was the most effective in terms of the amount and activity of the grafted biomolecule. A key role of calcium ions in the grafting mechanism is suggested, involving the formation of coordination compounds formed by way of gallic acid carboxylate and Ti–O as oxygenated donor groups. Bioactive behavior and surface charge of the pre-treated Ti6Al4V surface were conserved after functionalization. The functionalized surface exposed a greater amount of OH groups and showed higher wettability. View Full-Text
Keywords: titanium; gallic acid; polyphenols; surface functionalization; metal implants titanium; gallic acid; polyphenols; surface functionalization; metal implants
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Cazzola, M.; Ferraris, S.; Prenesti, E.; Casalegno, V.; Spriano, S. Grafting of Gallic Acid onto a Bioactive Ti6Al4V Alloy: A Physico-Chemical Characterization. Coatings 2019, 9, 302.

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