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Effect of Cold-Spray Conditions Using a Nitrogen Propellant Gas on AISI 316L Stainless Steel-Coating Microstructures

Research Division of Metal Finishing and Analysis, Osaka Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Ayumino 2-7-1, Izumi 594-1157, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Coatings 2017, 7(7), 87;
Received: 7 March 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 24 June 2017 / Published: 28 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Spray Technology)
PDF [5630 KB, uploaded 28 June 2017]


Cold-spray techniques have been a significant development for depositing metal coatings in recent years. In cold-spray processes, inexpensive nitrogen gas is widely used as the propellant gas in many industries. However, it is difficult to produce austenitic stainless steel coatings with dense microstructures with cold-spray techniques when using nitrogen propellant gas because of work hardening. In this study, the effects of cold-spray conditions using a nitrogen propellant gas on AISI 316L stainless steel coatings were examined. It was found that a higher nitrogen propellant gas temperature and pressure produce coatings with dense microstructures. The measured AISI 316L coating hardness values suggest that AISI 316L particles sprayed at temperatures of 700 and 800 °C soften due to the heat, allowing uniform deformation on the substrate and consequently forming dense coating microstructures. In addition, AISI 316L powder with particle diameters of 5–20 µm resulted in a denser coating microstructure than powder with particle diameters of 10–45 and 20–53 µm. Finally, the standoff distance between the nozzle and the substrate also affected the AISI 316L coating microstructures; a standoff distance of 40 mm produced the densest microstructure. View Full-Text
Keywords: cold-spraying; AISI 316L stainless steel; microstructure; porosity; hardness cold-spraying; AISI 316L stainless steel; microstructure; porosity; hardness

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Adachi, S.; Ueda, N. Effect of Cold-Spray Conditions Using a Nitrogen Propellant Gas on AISI 316L Stainless Steel-Coating Microstructures. Coatings 2017, 7, 87.

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