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Open AccessArticle

Mechanical and Spectroscopic Analysis of Retrieved/Failed Dental Implants

Faculty of Dentistry, International Medical University, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur 57000, Malaysia
UAE Health Authority, Abu Dhabi 45728, United Arab Emirates
Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ziauddin University, Karachi 75600, Pakistan
Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Department of Prosthetic Dental Science, Faculty of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh 60169, Saudi Arabia
Department of Periodontics and Community Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh 60169, Saudi Arabia
Faculty of Dentistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119083, Singapore
Oral Restorative and Rehabilitative Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alessandro Lavacchi
Coatings 2017, 7(11), 201;
Received: 26 September 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 15 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Implant Surface: Science and Technology)
The purpose of this study was to examine surface alterations and bone formation on the surface of failed dental implants (Straumann [ST] and TiUnite [TiUn]) removed due to any biological reason. In addition, failure analysis was performed to test mechanical properties. Dental implants (n = 38) from two manufacturers were collected and subjected to chemical cleaning. The presence of newly formed hydroxyapatite bone around failed implants was evaluated using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy was used to identify surface defects. Mechanical testing was performed using a Minneapolis servo-hydraulic system (MTS) along with indentation using a universal testing machine and average values were recorded. A statistical analysis of mechanical properties was done using an unpaired t test, and correlation between observed defects was evaluated using Chi-square (p = 0.05). Apatite-formation was evident in both implants, but was found qualitatively more in the ST group. No significant difference was found in indentation between the two groups (p > 0.05). The percentage of “no defects” was significantly lower in the ST group (71%). Crack-like and full-crack defects were observed in 49% and 39% of TiUn. The ST group showed 11,061 cycles to failure as compared with 10,021 cycles in the TiUnite group. Implant failure mechanisms are complex with a combination of mechanical and biological reasons and these factors are variable with different implant systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: titanium; Raman; hydroxyapatite; failed; dental implant; mechanical; nanoindentation titanium; Raman; hydroxyapatite; failed; dental implant; mechanical; nanoindentation
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Daood, U.; Banday, N.; Akram, Z.; Tsoi, J.K.H.; Neelakantan, P.; Omar, H.; Abduljabbar, T.; Vohra, F.; Al-Hamoudi, N.; Fawzy, A.S. Mechanical and Spectroscopic Analysis of Retrieved/Failed Dental Implants. Coatings 2017, 7, 201.

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