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Review

Electrodeposited Hydroxyapatite-Based Biocoatings: Recent Progress and Future Challenges

1
Research Center for Advanced Materials, Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz P.O. Box 51335-1996, Iran
2
Electrochemical Engineering Laboratory, National Centre for Advanced Tribology, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
3
Physical Materials Science and Composite Materials Center, Research School of Chemistry & Applied Biomedical Sciences, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, P.O. Box 634050 Tomsk, Russia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Coatings 2021, 11(1), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11010110
Received: 24 December 2020 / Revised: 15 January 2021 / Accepted: 15 January 2021 / Published: 19 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Bioactive Surfaces and Thin Films)
Hydroxyapatite has become an important coating material for bioimplants, following the introduction of synthetic HAp in the 1950s. The HAp coatings require controlled surface roughness/porosity, adequate corrosion resistance and need to show favorable tribological behavior. The deposition rate must be sufficiently fast and the coating technique needs to be applied at different scales on substrates having a diverse structure, composition, size, and shape. A detailed overview of dry and wet coating methods is given. The benefits of electrodeposition include controlled thickness and morphology, ability to coat a wide range of component size/shape and ease of industrial processing. Pulsed current and potential techniques have provided denser and more uniform coatings on different metallic materials/implants. The mechanism of HAp electrodeposition is considered and the effect of operational variables on deposit properties is highlighted. The most recent progress in the field is critically reviewed. Developments in mineral substituted and included particle, composite HAp coatings, including those reinforced by metallic, ceramic and polymeric particles; carbon nanotubes, modified graphenes, chitosan, and heparin, are considered in detail. Technical challenges which deserve further research are identified and a forward look in the field of the electrodeposited HAp coatings is taken. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioactivity; biocompatibility; coating; corrosion; electrodeposition; hydroxyapatite bioactivity; biocompatibility; coating; corrosion; electrodeposition; hydroxyapatite
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MDPI and ACS Style

Safavi, M.S.; Walsh, F.C.; Surmeneva, M.A.; Surmenev, R.A.; Khalil-Allafi, J. Electrodeposited Hydroxyapatite-Based Biocoatings: Recent Progress and Future Challenges. Coatings 2021, 11, 110. https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11010110

AMA Style

Safavi MS, Walsh FC, Surmeneva MA, Surmenev RA, Khalil-Allafi J. Electrodeposited Hydroxyapatite-Based Biocoatings: Recent Progress and Future Challenges. Coatings. 2021; 11(1):110. https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11010110

Chicago/Turabian Style

Safavi, Mir S., Frank C. Walsh, Maria A. Surmeneva, Roman A. Surmenev, and Jafar Khalil-Allafi. 2021. "Electrodeposited Hydroxyapatite-Based Biocoatings: Recent Progress and Future Challenges" Coatings 11, no. 1: 110. https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11010110

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