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Cold Gas Spraying of a High-Entropy CrFeNiMn Equiatomic Alloy

Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Aalto University, Kemistintie 1, 02150 Espoo, Finland
Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Tampere University, Korkeakoulunkatu 6, 33720 Tampere, Finland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Coatings 2020, 10(1), 53;
Received: 30 November 2019 / Revised: 29 December 2019 / Accepted: 2 January 2020 / Published: 8 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cold Spraying: Recent Trends and Future Views)
Cold gas spraying was used to make a coating from an equiatomic CrFeNiMn high-entropy alloy. This four-component alloy was chosen because it is Co-free, thus allowing application in nuclear industries as a possible replacement of currently used stainless steel coatings. The feedstock material was gas atomized powder with a particle size distribution from 20 to 45 µm. A number of parameters were tested, such as the powder feed rate and gas feed pressure, in order to obtain as dense a coating as possible with nitrogen as the process gas. Spraying was performed using a gas preheating temperature of 1000 °C, gas feed pressure ranging from 50 to 60 bar, and two powder feeding rates. The coating thicknesses ranging from 230 to 490 µm and porosities ranging from 3% to 10% were obtained depending on the powder feed rate and gas feed pressure. The hardness of the cross-section of the coating was usually lower than that of the surface. The highest coating hardness obtained was above 300 HV0.3 for both the surface and the cross-section. The as-atomized powder consisted of a face-centered cubic (FCC) phase with a minute amount of body-centered cubic (BCC) phase, which was no longer detectable in the coatings. The microstructure of the coating was highly stressed due to the high degree of deformation occurring in cold gas spraying. The deformation leads to strain hardening and induces a pronounced texture in the coating. The {111} planes tend to align along the coating surface, with deformation and texturing concentrating mainly on particle boundaries. A high-entropy alloy (HEA) coating was successfully sprayed for the first time using nitrogen as a process gas. The coating has the potential to replace stainless steel coatings in nuclear industry applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: high-entropy alloy; cold gas spraying; microstructure high-entropy alloy; cold gas spraying; microstructure
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lehtonen, J.; Koivuluoto, H.; Ge, Y.; Juselius, A.; Hannula, S.-P. Cold Gas Spraying of a High-Entropy CrFeNiMn Equiatomic Alloy. Coatings 2020, 10, 53.

AMA Style

Lehtonen J, Koivuluoto H, Ge Y, Juselius A, Hannula S-P. Cold Gas Spraying of a High-Entropy CrFeNiMn Equiatomic Alloy. Coatings. 2020; 10(1):53.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lehtonen, Joonas, Heli Koivuluoto, Yanling Ge, Aapo Juselius, and Simo-Pekka Hannula. 2020. "Cold Gas Spraying of a High-Entropy CrFeNiMn Equiatomic Alloy" Coatings 10, no. 1: 53.

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