Next Article in Journal
Experimental Parameters Influence the Observed Antimicrobial Response of Oak Wood (Quercus petraea)
Next Article in Special Issue
Antibiotic Resistance Characteristics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Keratitis in Australia and India
Previous Article in Journal
Antimicrobial Effect of Natural Berry Juices on Common Oral Pathogenic Bacteria
Previous Article in Special Issue
Genetic Subtyping, Biofilm-Forming Ability and Biocide Susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes Strains Isolated from a Ready-to-Eat Food Industry
Article

Characterization of Fosfomycin and Nitrofurantoin Resistance Mechanisms in Escherichia coli Isolated in Clinical Urine Samples

1
Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine and PhD Program in Clinical Medicine and Public Health, University of Granada-ibs, 18016 Granada, Spain
2
Pfizer-University of Granada-Junta de Andalucía Centre for Genomics and Oncological Research (GENYO), 18016 Granada, Spain
3
Laboratory of Microbiology, Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital-ibs, 18014 Granada, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antibiotics 2020, 9(9), 534; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9090534
Received: 17 July 2020 / Revised: 19 August 2020 / Accepted: 24 August 2020 / Published: 24 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Mechanisms)
Fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin are antibiotics of choice to orally treat non-complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) of community origin because they remain active against bacteria resistant to other antibiotics. However, epidemiologic surveillance studies have detected a reduced susceptibility to these drugs. The objective of this study was to determine possible mechanisms of resistance to these antibiotics in clinical isolates of fosfomycin- and/or nitrofurantoin-resistant UTI-producing Escherichia coli. We amplified and sequenced murA, glpT, uhpT, uhpA, ptsI, cyaA, nfsA, nfsB, and ribE genes, and screened plasmid-borne fosfomycin-resistance genes fosA3, fosA4, fosA5, fosA6, and fosC2 and nitrofurantoin-resistance genes oqxA and oqxB by polymerase chain reaction. Among 29 isolates studied, 22 were resistant to fosfomycin due to deletion of uhpT and/or uhpA genes, and 2 also possessed the fosA3 gene. Some modifications detected in sequences of NfsA (His11Tyr, Ser33Arg, Gln67Leu, Cys80Arg, Gly126Arg, Gly154Glu, Arg203Cys), NfsB (Gln44His, Phe84Ser, Arg107Cys, Gly192Ser, Arg207His), and RibE (Pro55His), and the production of truncated NfsA (Gln67 and Gln147) and NfsB (Glu54), were associated with nitrofurantoin resistance in 15/29 isolates; however, the presence of oqxAB plasmid genes was not detected in any isolate. Resistance to fosfomycin was associated with the absence of transporter UhpT expression and/or the presence of antibiotic-modifying enzymes encoded by fosA3 plasmid-mediated gene. Resistance to nitrofurantoin was associated with modifications of NfsA, NfsB, and RibE proteins. The emergence and spread of these resistance mechanisms, including transferable resistance, could compromise the future usefulness of fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin against UTIs. Furthermore, knowledge of the genetic mechanisms underlying resistance may lead to rapid DNA-based testing for resistance. View Full-Text
Keywords: Escherichia coli; fosfomycin; nitrofurantoin; antimicrobial resistance Escherichia coli; fosfomycin; nitrofurantoin; antimicrobial resistance
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Sorlozano-Puerto, A.; Lopez-Machado, I.; Albertuz-Crespo, M.; Martinez-Gonzalez, L.J.; Gutierrez-Fernandez, J. Characterization of Fosfomycin and Nitrofurantoin Resistance Mechanisms in Escherichia coli Isolated in Clinical Urine Samples. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 534. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9090534

AMA Style

Sorlozano-Puerto A, Lopez-Machado I, Albertuz-Crespo M, Martinez-Gonzalez LJ, Gutierrez-Fernandez J. Characterization of Fosfomycin and Nitrofurantoin Resistance Mechanisms in Escherichia coli Isolated in Clinical Urine Samples. Antibiotics. 2020; 9(9):534. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9090534

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sorlozano-Puerto, Antonio, Isaac Lopez-Machado, Maria Albertuz-Crespo, Luis J. Martinez-Gonzalez, and Jose Gutierrez-Fernandez. 2020. "Characterization of Fosfomycin and Nitrofurantoin Resistance Mechanisms in Escherichia coli Isolated in Clinical Urine Samples" Antibiotics 9, no. 9: 534. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9090534

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop