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Article

Antibiotic Resistance Characteristics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Keratitis in Australia and India

1
School of Optometry and Vision Science, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
2
The Singapore Centre for Environment Life Sciences Engineering (SCELSE), The School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore
3
The ithree Institute, The University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antibiotics 2020, 9(9), 600; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9090600
Received: 2 July 2020 / Revised: 8 September 2020 / Accepted: 9 September 2020 / Published: 14 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Mechanisms)
This study investigated genomic differences in Australian and Indian Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from keratitis (infection of the cornea). Overall, the Indian isolates were resistant to more antibiotics, with some of those isolates being multi-drug resistant. Acquired genes were related to resistance to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, macrolides, sulphonamides, and tetracycline and were more frequent in Indian (96%) than in Australian (35%) isolates (p = 0.02). Indian isolates had large numbers of gene variations (median 50,006, IQR = 26,967–50,600) compared to Australian isolates (median 26,317, IQR = 25,681–33,780). There were a larger number of mutations in the mutL and uvrD genes associated with the mismatch repair (MMR) system in Indian isolates, which may result in strains losing their efficacy for DNA repair. The number of gene variations were greater in isolates carrying MMR system genes or exoU. In the phylogenetic division, the number of core genes were similar in both groups, but Indian isolates had larger numbers of pan genes (median 6518, IQR = 6040–6935). Clones related to three different sequence types—ST308, ST316, and ST491—were found among Indian isolates. Only one clone, ST233, containing two strains was present in Australian isolates. The most striking differences between Australian and Indian isolates were carriage of exoU (that encodes a cytolytic phospholipase) in Indian isolates and exoS (that encodes for GTPase activator activity) in Australian isolates, large number of acquired resistance genes, greater changes to MMR genes, and a larger pan genome as well as increased overall genetic variation in the Indian isolates. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotic susceptibility; WGS; phylogenetic analysis; DNA mismatch repair system antibiotic susceptibility; WGS; phylogenetic analysis; DNA mismatch repair system
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khan, M.; Stapleton, F.; Summers, S.; Rice, S.A.; Willcox, M.D.P. Antibiotic Resistance Characteristics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Keratitis in Australia and India. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 600. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9090600

AMA Style

Khan M, Stapleton F, Summers S, Rice SA, Willcox MDP. Antibiotic Resistance Characteristics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Keratitis in Australia and India. Antibiotics. 2020; 9(9):600. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9090600

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khan, Mahjabeen, Fiona Stapleton, Stephen Summers, Scott A. Rice, and Mark D.P. Willcox 2020. "Antibiotic Resistance Characteristics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Keratitis in Australia and India" Antibiotics 9, no. 9: 600. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9090600

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