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Open AccessArticle

Potential Anti-Tuberculosis Activity of the Extracts and Their Active Components of Anogeissus leiocarpa (DC.) Guill. and Perr. with Special Emphasis on Polyphenols

1
Faculty of Pharmacy, Division of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, PO Box 56, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland
2
Department of Forest Products and Industries, Faculty of Forestry, PO Box 13314, University of Khartoum, Khartoum 11111, Sudan
3
Viikki Tropical Resources Institute (VITRI), Department of Forest Sciences, PO Box 27, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland
4
Department of Environmental and Biological sciences, Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland, 80101 Joensuu, Finland
5
Department of Forest Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, PO Box 27, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland
6
Department of Forest Managements, Faculty of Forestry, University of Khartoum, PO Box 13314, Khartoum 11111, Sudan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antibiotics 2020, 9(7), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9070364
Received: 27 May 2020 / Revised: 12 June 2020 / Accepted: 23 June 2020 / Published: 29 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Activity of Higher Plants)
In Sudanese traditional medicine, decoctions of the stem bark of Anogeissus leiocarpa are used for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). However, this plant has not been investigated before for its antimycobacterial effects. Our screening results show, for the first time, that many extracts of various parts of A. leiocarpa exhibit growth inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranged between 625 and 5000 µg/mL, with an ethyl acetate extract of the root showing the lowest MIC value. The good antimycobacterial effects of the root part could be due to its high concentration of ellagic acid derivatives, ellagitannins, and flavonoids. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) fractionation resulted in some fractions with better activity than the starting point crude methanol extract (MIC 2500 µg/mL). Those fractions with the lowest MIC values contained a high number of antioxidant compounds. Fractions 3 and 4 (MIC 1500 and 1000 µg/mL, respectively) contained high concentrations of di-methyl ellagic acid ([M-H] 329.0318). Fraction 6 (MIC 2000 µg/mL) contained a lower concentration of di-methyl ellagic acid and was not as growth inhibitory as fractions 3 and 4. Moreover, in fraction 3, an acetylated ellagic acid derivative ([M-H] 343.0477) and di-methyl-ellagic acid xyloside ([M-H] 461.0739) were tentatively characterized. Di-methyl ellagic acid xyloside was also present in fraction 4 and could strongly contribute to the antimycobacterial effect of this fraction. Additionally, protocatechuic acid ([M-H] at m/z 153.0196) was present in fraction 4. Our antimycobacterial results obtained from this research justify the use of A. leiocarpa in Sudanese folk medicine against cough related to TB. Roots, stem bark, and leaves of A. leiocarpa are sources for new potent anti-TB drug lead compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: Anogeissus leiocarpa; Africa; tuberculosis; ellagitannins; ellagic acid derivatives; flavonoids; stilbenes; Mycobacterium smegmatis Anogeissus leiocarpa; Africa; tuberculosis; ellagitannins; ellagic acid derivatives; flavonoids; stilbenes; Mycobacterium smegmatis
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Salih, E.Y.A.; Julkunen-Tiitto, R.; Luukkanen, O.; Sipi, M.; Fahmi, M.K.M.; Fyhrquist, P.J. Potential Anti-Tuberculosis Activity of the Extracts and Their Active Components of Anogeissus leiocarpa (DC.) Guill. and Perr. with Special Emphasis on Polyphenols. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 364.

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