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Open AccessArticle

In Vitro Efficacy of Essential Oils from Melaleuca Alternifolia and Rosmarinus Officinalis, Manuka Honey-based Gel, and Propolis as Antibacterial Agents Against Canine Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius Strains

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, University of Milan, Via Mangiagalli 31, Milan 20133, Italy
2
Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Milan, Via dell’Università 6, Lodi 26900, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antibiotics 2020, 9(6), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9060344
Received: 27 May 2020 / Revised: 16 June 2020 / Accepted: 17 June 2020 / Published: 19 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacterial Pathogens Resistance and Virulence)
Essential oils (EOs) and honeybee products (e.g., honey and propolis) are natural mixtures of different volatile compounds that are frequently used in traditional medicine and for pathogen eradication. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) EO (TTEO), Rosmarinus officinalis EO (ROEO), manuka-based gel, and propolis against 23 strains of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (SP) isolated from canine pyoderma. Antimicrobial resistance screening was assessed using a panel of nine antimicrobial agents coupled with a PCR approach. An aromatogram was done for both EOs, using the disk diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for all the compounds. Among the 23 SP strains, 14 (60.9%) were multidrug-resistant (MDR), 11 strains (47.8%) were methicillin-resistant (MRSP), and 9 (39.1%) were non-MDR. The mean diameter of the inhibition zone for Melaleuca and Rosmarinus were 24.5 ± 8.8 mm and 15.2 ± 8.9 mm, respectively, resulting as statistically different (p = 0.0006). MIC values of TTEO and ROEO were similar (7.6 ± 3.2% and 8.9 ± 2.1%, respectively) and no statistical significances were found. Honeybee products showed lower MIC compared to those of EOs, 0.22 ± 0.1% for Manuka and 0.8 ± 0.5% for propolis. These findings reveal a significant antibacterial effect for all the tested products. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotic resistance; melaleuca alternifolia; MRSP; multidrug resistance; virulence factors antibiotic resistance; melaleuca alternifolia; MRSP; multidrug resistance; virulence factors
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Meroni, G.; Cardin, E.; Rendina, C.; Herrera Millar, V.R.; Soares Filipe, J.F.; Martino, P.A. In Vitro Efficacy of Essential Oils from Melaleuca Alternifolia and Rosmarinus Officinalis, Manuka Honey-based Gel, and Propolis as Antibacterial Agents Against Canine Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius Strains. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 344.

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