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Open AccessArticle

Studying the Gene Expression of Penicillium rubens Under the Effect of Eight Essential Oils

1
Institute of Molecular Biology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 21, 84551 Bratislava, Slovakia
2
Department of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences of Comenius University, Ilkovičova 6, 84215 Bratislava, Slovakia
3
Institute for Clinical and Translational Research, Biomedical Research Center, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84505 Bratislava, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antibiotics 2020, 9(6), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9060343
Received: 22 May 2020 / Revised: 14 June 2020 / Accepted: 16 June 2020 / Published: 19 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Essential Oils)
Essential oils (EOs) are well-known for their beneficial properties against a broad range of microorganisms. For the better understanding of their mechanism of action in fungi, a microarray approach was used in order to evaluate the gene expression of Penicillium chrysogenum (recently renamed P. rubens) exposed to the indirect contact (vapors) of eight EOs. The selection of assayed EOs was based on their antifungal activity. The extraction of RNA and the microarray hybridization procedure were optimized for the analysis of P. rubens. Gene ontology annotation was performed to investigate the functional analysis of the genes. To uncover the metabolic pathway of these differentially expressed genes, they were mapped into the KEGG BRITE pathway database. The transcriptomic analysis showed that, from a total of 12,675 genes, only 551 genes are annotated, and the other 12,124 genes encoded hypothetical proteins. Further bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that 1350 genes were upregulated and 765 downregulated at least with half (four) of the utilizing EOs. A microarray investigation has confirmed the main impact of EOs to metabolic processes in P. rubens involved in vital functions. Presumably, this is the first time that a microarray hybridization analysis was performed in order to evaluate the gene expression of P. rubens exposed to various EOs. View Full-Text
Keywords: Penicillium rubens; essential oils; growth inhibition; RNA microarray; gene expression; metabolic pathway analysis Penicillium rubens; essential oils; growth inhibition; RNA microarray; gene expression; metabolic pathway analysis
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Kisová, Z.; Šoltýsová, A.; Bučková, M.; Beke, G.; Puškárová, A.; Pangallo, D. Studying the Gene Expression of Penicillium rubens Under the Effect of Eight Essential Oils. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 343.

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